Ethical Futures London, RSA.

AGENDA 09.00          Registration

09.20           Audience seated in the Great Room

09.30 – 09.40      Welcome – Matthew Taylor, Chief Executive of the RSA

09.40 - 10.10       Panel Discussion – Communicating the issues:  enriching the dialogue Our perceptions about scientific advancements are influenced by information that we receive from           a myriad of sources.  Can we trust the quality of the information in the public domain? Is there a           connection between this and our overwhelming negative response to some new and emerging               technologies? Chair: Oliver Morton - Chief News & Features Editor, Nature Dr Anjana Ahuja – Features writer & columnist, The Times Cory Doctorow – Science fiction writer, journalist and blogger

10.10 – 10.20     Audience participation

10.20 – 10.30     Short story competition award presentation RSA short story competition on our vision of the future

10.30 – 11.00     Coffee break

Presentations An exploration of country experiences in developing ethics frameworks

11.00 – 12.20    Session chair: Dr Jonathan Carr-West – Programme Head, RSA

Japanese Bioethics and Enhancement– Prof Takao Takahashi

1.    reflective equilibrium 2.    enhancement debate in japan

history of bioethics in japan -    from 1970s to 1980 beginning -    1969 – Japanese Asoc of Med Law -    1971 – principle of Informed Cnsent in Tokyo -    1971 – Mitsubishi --- Life Science Institute of Ideas

second period 1982 – first ethics committee 1983 – first IVF baby born in japan 1985 – mass media on bioethics 1988 – Japan Assoc of Bioethics

3rd period 1993- guidelines for gene therapy 1995 – first gene therapy 1997 – organ transplant aw 1999 – firs organ transplant from brain-dead person 2000 – human cloning law 2001 – guidelines for human genome research 2007 – guidelines for end of life care agenda: surrogacy, revision to organ transplant law

Taking Life and Death Seriously – Bioethics from Japan -    Advances in Bioethics – vol.8, Elsevier

Reflective Equilibrium Moral judgements, moral intuition, custom Basic concepts basic principles Intermediate principles, law, guidelines (via Interpretation, abduction)

no level is absolute coherentism

subcom of human embryo research: structure of its argument

moral judgements, moral intuition, custom -    safety donor rights, right to research, usefulness, disclosure

respect for human dignity -    prohibition against dealing as only a method -    prohibition against identity of human species

Current Sitn in Japan on Enhancement -    public interest o    not strong o    prefer surrogate mother to designer baby o    Ritalin – abuse, attract media o    Cyborg – only in few tv progs o    Doping – prob of sport •    Make too much of safety -    research interest o    cannot be solved by Beauchamp and Childress’ principles or respect for dignity •    search for not-borrowed original principles or, reinterpretation of existing principles -    16th Annual Assoc of Biethics Conf (2004) o    first appearance at conf o    agena: defn of enhancement, classicifcaitons o    discussions of funl concepts (therapy, self, dignity, autonomy goodness) -    18th Ann Ass Conf (2006) o    aenda: nature of life, dyanics of sci, economics -    19th Conf (2007) o    brain enhancement, SSRI, genetics

Characs -    general rather than specific -    emphasis on other countries -    re-examine fundamental concepts rather than applic of existent principles (philosophical dialogue) -    reflective equilibrium -    moral intuition to criticize or deduce fundamental concepts -    solidarity

Enhancement and Japanese compatibility -    Reason (right way) o    Through history, customs, o    Prudence (Yamato Gokoro), unselfish o    Customs, bottom-up -    Value as endurance – customs, conventions -    Sympathy – natural bond of humans -    Life – soc like living thing

General view -    ambiguity of life o    self-preservation, improve enviro o    inevitability of mistakes, aging dath •    negative, but is opposite o ideal of machine -    human dignity basd on ambiguity of life o    respect for other o    sympathy for vulnerable, care for others

Structure of morality based on ambiguity of life -    moral sentences, customs

Where is permissible range? -    if A exceeds, then B as brake -    permissible ranges -    therapy is most famous -    natural

Within Japan -    ambiguity of life -    weak self -    sympathy -    uncertainties of life -    natur’s divine power -    child like a god -    abandonment (virtue, ideal, leads to enlightement)

Ethics and emerging technologies in America – Prof Nigel Cameron

3 accounts of emerging technology

nanotech discussion has led national nanotech intiative in US, by Clinton 2003 – 21st Century Nano R&D act

next fiscal year $1.4b for Institute

broader ethical implications AI ELSI Language in act not tied to funding trends

Controversy among people about slowness of funding, not just for ELSI but also safety, toxicology

On Friday, I was chairing conference at Press Club in Wasington

Initiatives -    I’ve been involved with 5 federal workshops o    Cogntivie enhancement o    Nano and convergence -    No evidence that these have fed to policy machine -    But evidence fo pre-debate

This year, re-authorization process

Tendency to play down radical implics

Nat Ac of Sci -    produced report -    referred to 2 of 6 concerns, dismissed as sci fi -    but a few month before, national lab convened workshop on cognitive enhancement

discouragement of public conversation

National Science foundation -    lead in nano -    convened series of conferences, sep from nano and nano and soc confs -    converging technologies o    2003 – Roco and Bainbridge – NBIC doc •    controversy, since occasion of European report •    European response •    Euro group said American approach not NBIC but of Human Nature and Machine nature •    Europe seen as a policy doc, which was a misunderstanding •    Object lesson in how not to do things, but also in how they were done

‘Nanoscale’ book by Cameron

Converging Technologies -    suggests implics are World Peace -    become one World brain -    interpreted as policy positions of US government

3rd Narrative -    US President’s Council on Bioethics -    Estab for Cloning primarily -    Beyond Therapy o    Open ended discussion, saying enhancement is most imp q we face, bt also v difficult to come to terms with o    Staff report, no policy recommendations or status -    Readings doc – stories o    Context for conversation -    Most controversial for role in stem cell, though first formal decision was to disagree with Bush on therapeutic cloning. One reason for why policy role limited

These 3 strands on pre-debate

Observations: -    predebate character shows difficulty in main-streaming which we are discussing today o    public engagement strategy in Europe •    2 possible outcomes. •    Keep as peripheral discussion •    Priming pump for mainstreaming, bringing about •    Partly why developing new think tank in US, since absent •    Cinderella character of bioethics debates -    Converging Technologies model interesting, branded by NSF. Europ group developed alternative term. Nano are converging o    Convergence of humanities and social sciences -    Global dimension o    US representatin at various sitns. Eg. human cloning vs UK o    US also on UNESCO’s Bioethics and Human Rights

What is the European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies thinking about? Prof Julian Kinderlerer

What is the EGE? -    set up in 1990s, by President of Commission to advise

anything on sci and technology thought to be o signif in Europe

deliberately consists of fewer members than states in euro, so represents indiv, rather than a country

v difficult to put into English views of colleagues, biggest problem

Directive XXXX.: patents on biotech and life -    think about general, not indiv

Directive 2001/18 -    release of GMOs into enviro and marketing. We are given role in thinking about general ethical issues

recent activity -    Opinion 20: ICT implants o    Indicated happy with use of enhancement technology to bring human individuals within normal range, but not further. So, could replace lost or malformed foot or heart. But to enhance an athlete to take part in Olympics, falls foul of ant-doping legislation. -    Opinion 21 (2007): ethics of nanomedicine o    Specifically didn’t talk about enhancement o    Only modern nano on medicine. o    Technology offers poss of new diagnostics and preventive o    Concerned that moral duty to make affordable health care available to all on fair and equitable basis o    Concerned that could improve only wealthy o    Also looked at risks o    Economist last week on manner of risks of nano have not been assessed properly. Not technology to do risk assessment. EU recognized o    These are policy docs. EU decided now major investment in risk and ethics of converging technologies o    Spending more on technology than risk and ethics o    Recognizes that understanding and preventing risk has low priority in research world. o    With risk research, public confidence in technology could be reduced in real or perceived dangers. Sometimes perceived greater danger. o    Cosmetics concern, since don’t require much risk analysis. But are they dangerous? How far into skin do they permeate? •    Will return to this issue -    Opinion 22 (2007): human embryonic stem cells, under FP7 o    US sitn permeates Europe. o    Opinions of group, mirrored Europe o    Germany, stem cell hardly committed. Not allowed to make or use stem cells unless country fro, which used is fully member of FP7 eg. if stem cell from Israel, can use in Germany. Italy, Ireland, Poland, cannot. o    If brought to group, would never have had consensus o    How bridge gap? •    Chose to do so by political compromise •    Worded FP7 carefully. •    Identified variety of techniques t permit use of ESC in Europe without getting anybody XXX. •    Eg. cant use stem cells that have been made except those in countries from FP7 – but cannot make them with money from FP7 •    Group felt strongly that cells must only be for medical research, not for other purpose eg. replace animal exptn, so only direct medical purpose, not indirect •    System: proposal to EU, then scientific eval, then ethics eval, then reps of EU states – purely political -    Now, due to FDA, look at cloned animals for food o    Caused signif probs o    Mainly cattle o    For dairy cattle, few bulls used worldwide o    Average bull produces enough semen for 20-100,000 calfs per year o    Don’t need so many bulls o    So need system for not producing monoclonal popn o    For meet cattle, have prairies whee cattle roam and bulls roam with them o    Difficult to improve o    So, produce clones of bulls and improve quality of bulls. o    Don’t need in Europe, since don’t have same extent of roaming o    We were worried by fact that pre-implantation, have problem. o    During pregnancy, lose greater proportion of implanted, than for AID. o    Large number die during life o    Animal welfare, not safety, is main concern o    Concern about WTO legal action for unfair barriers to trade o    Need to look at more carefully, than system in US permits -    Next, industrialized agriculture

We believe we will be asked about enhancement technology soon

Bioethics policy and debate: a UK perspective Hugh Whittall (Nuffield Council on Bioethics)

Previously civil servant – human tissue branch

Won’t speak on HE debate, since not much polic implics yet. Mainly academic

Gov and advisory bioethics -    HGC -    NRES -    GIC -    GTAC -    APC

Regulatory authorities - HFEA - HTA

indep bodies - Nuffield - BMA Med Ethics Com

estab in 1991

indep body 2004 review: gov decided not to establish own bioethics committee

3 core functions - identify and define ethical qs, respond to public concern - make arrnagmenets for examining and reporting such questins to promote public understanding and discussion - policy focused

quarterly meetings of council 16 members new topics reveiwd at horizon scanning

topics -    novel, complex, timely, allow NCOB to make an impact

working party estab to consider topic in detail

working parties

impact on public debate -    media coveage -    public events -    education activities

working with Nuffield curriculum centre provide materials for use in schools science and citizenship curricula plays in schools

what about adults?

We don’t have a single ethical framework that in the UK we apply to ethics in public policy

Rather, we tend to identify values relevant to particular case

What language do we use to communicate?

Need a public engagement with ethics

Enhancement ok, but need o provide underlying language with which to engage on particulars

12.20 – 12.45    Audience participation

Is there a notion of what a human being is that informs your debates?

Hugh: no. unfair to pitch to our org.

Prof Takahashi: idea of human dignity not complete. Right to self determination must be based on concept of life, not human being. What is life frames our approach.

Nigel: we operate on assumption that we know what human is, even if cannot define. At functional level, this is a non-subject. Notions of courage, etc – virtue – heart of what it means to be human. Threat is technological fix that make unnecessary.

Julian: priest and rabbi asked when life began: priest said moment of conception, rabbi said when dog dies and kids leave home. Between I and polish group on group, we are completely different. Do not wish to remove these differences. Harmonization in defining human would lose a great deal. Eg. live in south afria ecause wanted to go to non-western soc, to see what they are acing. Concept of IP presumes indiv autonomy. But not present in other cultres. Should we harmonize or understand differences?

Q: thought Hugh Whittel’s idea of having a language is fundamental. Practice of defiing values is key to international affairs, consensus and good governance. Prob of defining values is need to differentiate between amount of value ascribed by indiv to a partic quality. Science of thinking and eval that have not establishd for thinking about this prob.

Q: religious recognition outside of western?

Hugh: must measure values that come into conflict. If look at other cultures, will help.

Prof Takahashi:

Nigel: how get public discussion between different types of people.

12.45 – 13.45    Lunch

13.45 – 13.50     Book launch

Presentations Current research is posing difficult questions about our future at both the individual and societal levels.  This session highlights some of the work and implications at the forefront of science.

13.50     15.20        Session chair: Prof Igor Aleksander – Prof of Artificial Intelligence Humanoid Robotics, Culture and Society of Japan Prof Atsuo Takanishi

Late prof ichiro kato WABOT-1 (1973) WASEDA-Gifu Wabian-2R -    Hitachi, walker for elserly and handicapped -    For designing new prosthetic

Biped Robot that can carry a human – WL-16 Practical Robotic Solutions, TMSUK

Emotion Expression Robot

EYE-Chan -    ROBOCASA WK-16

Deformable Face Robot – Solid Works

Flutist Robot for Simulating -    lung capacity similar to

Vocal Humanoid -    WT-5 o    High speed-camera o    Vocal cord vibration o    Kotaro Fukui team

AICHI EXPO 05 -    biggest robotic event in Japan

Toyota robots SONY HONDA, MITI,

Historical Backgrounds

Simplified history o japan In 1600s-1867 – Edo Era -    cultural explosion -    Japan’s renaissance -    Karakuri, sushi, manga, ukiyo-e, jabuki, jaiu bonsai, tea cer -    Karakuri puppels, in 17th C

Center of Education in Edo Era: Terakoya School

Admiral Perry -    expected japan would take over technology from other countries

populatization of Japanese mathematics -    Jinkoki, Sangau -    Pii and proof of geometry, in Japanese templese, 2-300 yrs ago

Astro Boy (1951) manga Iron Man the 28th (1956)

Left and right brain function varies in part between western and asia

Onomatopeia -    12000 in japanese, 3000 in English requiem service for broken needles in japan -    technology can have soul – need to protect

The ethical implications of automated killers: Will robots take over the battlefield and law enforcement in the 21st century? Prof Noel Sharkey

Unded by research council on issues of public concern

Recurrent issue from journalists is robotics and military

Link to police service

Worldwide stock of 6m serice, personal and industraial robogs Prices falling – 80% cheaper in 2006 than in 1990

Numbers et to rise

US Future combat systems project spending to exceed $230b -    massive and realistic plans to develop unmanned vehicles to strike form the air, under sea, and on land -    - congress set a goal on 2001 for one third of operational ground combat vehicles unmanned by 2015

4000 ground based robots in iraq

mostly Explosive Ordinance Deployment

robots as extensions of human fighters human operators control

UCAV – semi-autonomous Deployed in iraq MQ-1 predator – hellfires USAF

Boeing X45A X47B Pegasus


US National Research council ‘Navy and Marine Corps…exploit …autonomous vehicles’

Cheaper to manufacture Require less support personnel Perform better

Want a single soldier to initiate large scale robot attack from air and on ground

Big IF -    autonomous systems can identify legality, then -    let men target men -    let machines target machines

AI Myth

Grave doubts -    robots not bright enough to be called stupid

many subtle distinctions to be made in war

cold lead to chaotic or uncontrollable behav

robots do not have t discriminative ability required

Just War Theory -    fully moral and ethically approp use of mass political violence -    extends back to st augusiine and Aquinas -    basis for laws of war enshrined in Geneva and hague conventions

three main parts -    Jus ad bellum – justifcaiton for waging war -    Jus in bello – conditions of just war o    Discrimination o    Proportionality o    No means o    Responsibility

The Artificial Conscience -    US army funding project an ethical robot soldier -    Could such a device be more ethical than humans because are not emotional -    Idea is to provide robot with set of ethical rules to apply in combat situations

Won solve prob of discrim and control -    used to ally political opposition

John Ford ‘Obliteration’ -    could not possibly protect all innocents in war

answer was to go for technological solution. Prob of allocating responsibility for mishps to machines

UK Government on Robot ethics -    horizon scanning doc -    robots for reproduction, improve themselves, gain AI -    granted legal rights and have citizen responsibilities o    voting, paying taxes, compulsory military service

Robot Arms Race -    once technology developed, everyone will want it -    DARPA annual grand challenge -    Singapore, JUK and South Africa started -    Israel and South Korea have robot  border guards

UCAV Russian Scat nEUROn by SAAB

Conclusion -    if cant guarantee discrim with combatants and innocents, should not use -    allocating responsibility for killing innnocents -    eliminating ‘body bag’ politics -    can a war be just with no danger to one side -    responsibility as engineers is to be honest about AI

New York Times, 1950 -    ‘…we will need a robot machine commission to function somewhat like our present Atomic Energy Commission...’

Neuroethical issues of cognitive enhancement Prof Barbara Sahakian

‘boosting your brain power’ BMA publication

do we need cognitive enhancement? -    Alzheimer’s disease -    Biggest risk factor, age -    Each year, 39,400 new cases -    Current cost of long term care for dementia is £4.6b, expected to rise to £10.9b by 2031 -    Number of people rise from 224000 in 1998 to 365000 in 201

Schizophrenia -    23m people worldwide -    even small improvements in cognitive fn could help patients make transition to independent living

ADHD -    4-10% of all children worldwide affective, most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorder

Ritalin ok for 60% of children

Neuroprosthetics for cognition

Pharmacological possibilities

Foresight – Brain Sciences and Addiction

Use of stimulants by students -    16% students on some collage campuses in USA -    See PHOTO

Modafinil improves planning in healthy volunteers

Athlete Kelly White banned

Rights and wrongs of cognitive enhancement in healthy people -    inceasd performance (boh pleasurable and competitive activites) -    modafinil o    Emory University, USA

Questionnaire by Sahakian and Morein-Zamir, 2007

Military, shift workers, air traffic control, school pupils

Normalization removal of nfair disparity in shcooling

Wrongs -    long-term side effect

Ecstasy and depression -    Roiser et al Am J Psychiatry, 2005, 162(3), 609-612

Neuroethics socie Cyborgs…… the future for humans? Prof Kevin Warwick

Using technology to assist with problems - parkinson’s disease, DBS

15.20 – 15.40    Audience participation

15.40 – 16.05   Tea

16.05 -16. 30 Panel Discussion – Defining the boundaries to human enhancement: the way forward Session chair: Prof Andrew George Dr Andy Miah Prof Nigel Cameron

My Intervention: Boundaries PPT on Biocultural Capital

Types of boundaries - conceptual (defns, aesthetic, cultural, discourse) practical (technical, regulatory, legal, intergovernmental)

Focus on conceptual - defining enhancements – accumulation of biocultural capital - EGE Prof outlined egs that were, in my view, sill therapeutic rather than enhancing - nor Kevin’s Parkinson’s disease patient - profound reductionism of transhumanism - reduction of ethics to ‘consumption of ethics’ - trust – crisis of expertise – PEWE indicative of - how dowe know it’s genuine - achieving gender equality in debates about enhancement technology

16.30 – 16.45 Audience participation

16.45    - 16.50    Close – Prof Bruce Lloyd

Followed by Reception in the Vaults