CUC & Annenberg Media and Olympics Invited: Monroe Price, Daniel Dayan, Sandra Collins, Carolyn Marvin, Susan Brownell, Richard Kurnit

collaborative project.

if interested, take part in collaborative research.

Welcome Speeches

Mr Su Zhiwu, Prof and President, CUC

Monroe Price

President of Annenberg is Amy Guttmann

representation, technology, communication & society relationship

Mr Huang Yong, President Academy of Broadcasting Plan, SARFT

not just a sports event

remembersd in history for no of participants. – e mens athletes

but numbers present will be small relatively, so mass medi will be main way that peple are reached

1936, more than 136,000 pepople watched.


more than 300 boradcasters worldwide

audience of more than 8million people

Jacque Rogge: we hope more people can enjoy through tv

in 2008,

I 1936, some only enjoy OG by traditional tv,

in 1936 by satellite tv

we have hope in future, tv more signif role

OG in 2008 will broadcast OG with new technology – digital tv, HDTV and digitalisation of tv

will broadcast with better pictures and sound technology

2008 OG historical moment for China’s broadcast media and improve digitisation of broadcast media

will serve Olympics and be complementary  OG

28 items and morethan 20000 matches in Olympics

more than 20,000 media will come

chance tio improve sports reporting from form to content

ME: hat ais the relationship between media employees and technology developers in TV for instance?

OG is state of art event.

not just sports event bt chance to sharpen journalist games

Asian Games success has helped broadcast media to raise standard

Beijing wll use HDTV signals – first time in broadcasting history of the world

as host country, media practitioners will embrace event with more indepth analysis of coverage

XXX\ Ministry of Education Olympics as humanity

psychology, physiology and ethics

relationship between sports and mass media at CCU


Communications research and Olympic Games, a Background

Susan Brownell Prof and Director, Anthropology, Uni of Missouri-St.Louis Olympic Studies and the IOC’s relationship with the academic world: the state of the field

Globalization and Pluralization of Olympic Culture Ren Hai, Exec Dir of Olympic Studies Center, Prof of Beijing Sports University Wang Fang

Olympic Charter principle no 2, impc of education in Olympic Movement

Olympism is a philosophy of life…

seeks to create a way of life based on joy found in effort

many arly IOC members were Professors

slowly lost link with academic world

main educational efforts of IOC at IOA in Greece

iOC gives money to fund plane tickets, but does not fund sessions

centre for Olympic studies

postgraduate seminar is highest level academic session

about 8 years ago, Korean scholar Kung SShung po suggested easertn at home of Confucious

proposed branch fo IOA in China

currently just an idea

but may be something to learn more about

in the IOC reforms of 2000, ioc ceated commission on culture and education

22 Oct to 24 next session of IOC Culture and Education commission

He Zeilll, Prsident of commission -    recognise commitment to culture and education

but commission v large and activities v fragmented

Olympic museum in Lausanne

Sandra Collins received postgraduate grant at IOC Miseum

John MacAloon was mentor to me

Susan was  a member of the Councl

when Jacques Rogge became president, audit by JKristine Toohey

OSC reorganised under Informational Management – Philiop Lanchard (the man I met in Torino and then in Lausanne)

Rogge moved to corporate model

research council and OSC in danger of being eliminated

Rogge pereceived as unfriendly towards education and interested only in info that serves IOC

postgrad grant cancelled for a year and needed to fight

now Selection Committee is name, postgrad grant now renewed

hope that it would link academics and iOC abandomed

Otto Schantz in 2005 represtened to Rogge in meeting.

Rogg not suggestive of suggestions

interested in value added for IOC but not basic research

IOC approves and supports orgs that serve needs for historical record keeping

Pierre de Coubertin Committee eg

International Society of Olympic Historians

ME: does it have any IOC affiliation? or support?

through Athens Olympics IOC approved Pre-Olympic congress, but not occur in 2008.

will not contain word Olympic

will c ombine sports medicine with social sci and humanities

Olympic Studeies Centers

Barcelona cntre

Rogge has reduced its funding, but still engaged in collaboration

runs Olympic Studies directory

prevoiiusly had biannual conferences with reports for IOC, but now discontinued

this centre a Comm and Media oriented

another Olympic Studies Center is the Western Ontario.

hosts biannual conferences.

also sponsors an annual lecture series

the Beijing Sport Uni Center for Olympic Studies also active

hosted internjational lecturers etc

several others around the world that are not as active as these three.

when Rogge shifted from education to

Olympic Studies Network proposed –

-    not ours!

serveal places where should make contact with IOC

first, have already made contact with Barcelona center

this is a good and appropriate partner

contact Philip Blanchard at IOC Info

Wang Fang Beijing Sports University

5 aspects

1.    Olympics in era of globalisation 2.    homogenisation of Olympic 3.    cultural diversity 4.    developing countries role in cultural diversity

ME: thesis on globalisation should distinguish between macro-global (mass media) and micro-global (web2.0). we are moving into a micro global era.

homogenisation of culture lead to social displacement

domination of western sports culture historically

most of Olympic sports came from west


ME: As an academic, I sometimes wonder whether it is relevant for scholars to seek IOC recognition for their work on the Olympics. I agree that it is important for the IOC to be constituted by an academic community, but this is something different. I am aware that many scholars outside of some Olympic network worry about the need to achieve recognition from the IOC, whatever that might entail. My view is that the IOC should support collaborative opportunities, but should academics be funded by the IOC for their research? I am not sure, particularly when we see the IOC as a corporate structure. A more substantive approach I would suggest would involve the de-regulation of Olympic intellectual property rights that would encompass affiliation with educational activities.

ME: homogenisation in an era of digital tv – is the media mass?

ME: this is a wonderful place to begin as it allows us to consider what we mean by a community of Olympic scholars and what that might entail. Being an Olympic scholar is a political issue.

Lu Yanmei Visiing Scholar, ASC, Uni Penn PhD candidate, CUC Existing Research Structure of Olympics and Media Studies in China

1688 articles

main focus of academic research is sports, nationalism and national image. relationship between politics and economics are few.

distribution of scholars – 65% from sport, 4% from communication

focus quite fragmented

only 2 from communications

top subject is sport, followed by tourism, construction, lastly communications

media studies lag

few Chinese scholars

for such a big media event, Communication circle is keeping silent.

ongoing and current research

Renmin Uni Humanistic Olympics Studies Center

accredited by Beijing Municipal Government, estab in 2003.

President is consultant to the center

drawn a number of experts

close relations with Barcelona center and Queensland

since 6 years, has undertaken projects Olympig Games General Impact

OGGI big won by Renmin

will become the International Olympic sports and cultural heritage will be 4th report.

last for 8 years and of high value for sci research

has compiled a number fo papers and article Beijing Olympics Rsearch Centre, Beijing Sports University also well known in China and world wide


Few Olympics related articles by Chinese scholars have a)    theoretical framework b)    systematic evidential base c)    explore large-0scale ideas

ME: Is IOC recognition desirable?

Questions and Answers

Monroe: relationship between research and the IOC as much unsaid as said! is there a funl problem between research and Olympic Movement

Susan: relationship between IOC and academic world full of conflict for a long time inevitable since IOC do not wish for criticism one of the low points was Andrew Jenning’s book at that point, IOC became particularly sensitive to outside academics felt not open to criticism with Rogge, shift to transparency, but also corporate model shift toward corporate model indicates interest in forms of knowl that can serve IOC rather than abstract goals of academics

Monroe: how does this relate to scholarship on China? supportive vs critical scholarship.

Susan: IOC now starting to recognise that China presents particular problem to it. they realise they don’t understand china and they need to. recently asked to contribute article to Olympic Review. first time that an intellectual has been asked to contribute in many years. now possible to open the door.

Sandra: International Journal of History of Sport, IOC edition will be published.

ME: why is the IOC separate?

Daniel Dayan: Ren Hai’s paper very controversial. moving and angry paper. proposing that there is an ethnocentricism. types of people chosen, etc, all from same backgrounds and plea was to universalise. nice argument, but is argument against itself. notion of sport is not a universal notion sport is an English word, responding to an activity and to people – one can be a good sport Coubertin’s working of that notion inventing genealogy was specifically European. Sports and Coubertin are accurate in European terms – it is a Euro business that has been transformed if there was a universal practice encounter, why should it decide to be an encounter abot the bizarre thing we call ‘sport’. why not play, why not agon? is poss not to accept at all. let Europeans play their little games. should not accept emphasis on sport

ME: must agree what we mean by the Olympics: mass media visibility, access to international diplomatic relationships and fundamental partners, then it is unclear how academics should orientate themselves towards something like the IOC. Olympic Charter indicates social values, but the evidence suggests that – the sports are the last activities that interest a host city.

many coroporate entities have their ‘corporate values’ expressed through a mission statement.

Daniel: bringing all under Olympic reduces diversification.

Monroe: can reinvent tradition of Olympics. how can treat with scholarly topic? is China perceiving itself as champion of Olympics? if look at 2012, also about process of re-definition a re-defined United Kingdom was reflected in bid process.

ME: what do we want from the Olympics? The Olympics doesn’t always bring out the best in academics. it’s seen as a potential cash cow for research

Gang Xu: Prof Price asked if redefinition of Olympics in Beijing I think yes. When asked to define this Olympics he raised four characteristics: 1.    will have Chinese flavour (e.g. mascots, Olympic songs,

Commercialisation of Olympics what has been done in this area? has it influenced characteristics of Olympics? violation of original ideals? any major corporate sponsor projects on Olympics, eg TOP sponsors.

Monroe: We will have a panel on the sponsorship.

Carolyn: follow up on Price point that Olympics has always followed power. another way of saying that Olympics not only convening of competitive games, but a competitive spectacle. This international competition of image and spectacle is a v old international Game and v familiar to China and other countries. what are the substantive values that the China games will constitutes.

Beatriz: A lot of research not linked to official Olympic studies center. more rewarding to act independently.

Andy: What do we want from the Olympics?

Monroe: Return to Carolyn’s question. Wang Fung, did you understand Carolyn’s question? Carolyn asked

Wang Fung: to be different is requisite

ME: Is difference possible at the Olympics? if a global media?

Prof. Hu Zhengron (Chair)

ME: what constitutes difference at an Olympic Opening ceremony, because many of its formats are fixed.

core valuies are Western values

ME: no core values are Olympic values and an Olympic brand.

can other values be intergrated?

Dean of Sports journalism at Shanghai Sports University Olympic movement is treasure of the world.

ME: I am concerened that there is a reduction of the conept of difference in this. I am doubtful that it is possible for an Olympic Games to be substantively different.

core sports value of Chinese culture

since diversification is the theme, why Olympic games refuse to list culture and arts as one of items.

ME: What do we want from the Olympics: Academics, neither news nor features; to be inspired, social change? educational reform? international diplomacy. embed our work into the direction of this institution?

what do we expect from the Olympics? perhaps explains why media have not discussed much insofar as media studies seeks to hold media structures up to the spotlight.

Briar: adding sports to the roster?

Sandra: Olympic Games not a global movement. sports and politics closely related it’s about promoting the IOC. think of IOC as neither west nor east, but its own institution.

what do we expect from: IOC, OCOG, Academic research, Media representation

Wang Fung: promote communication exchange.


Prof Hu:


Chairs: Prof Hu and Prof Price

‘Consensual’ Competitions: where has the conflict gone? Media events, sport events and expressivity Daniel Dayan, Pof Istitut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris

3 points

1.    communication – assumption that comm. is a form of sharing and that is friendly. I believe that there is no reason to be friendly and often comm. is everything but friendly 2.    a number of events are well qualified as platforms. what the event is about is irrelevant vis a vis as it can be sed as a platform. so an event about anything can be used for anything else 3.    expressivist events as opposed to natural catastrophies are extra fragile. a symbolic evevnt hard to take seriously.

how possible to achieve conversion of ridiculous into sublkmme.

first I think that comm. is often form of a contest – a dight. not only about sharing, but often about misunderstanding and cultural misunderstandings are imp part of comm.

point not to erase them, but analyse and see what is cgoing on.

in football everyone is hurt – kicking.

overcoming of violence because agree to play bty rules – violence by the rules is contest

at highest level Zidane head buts and becomes a famous scandal

memorable of world cup is

ailectics between comm. of violence and of friendship

to stress that only beautiful matters is to lverlook that competition is about winning

and winning means certain things

about cultural diversity

John MacAloon – why should cultural diversity correspond with nation states

in Olympics not allowed to compete if not nation state

fnish on World Champion -    ambigious word -    has meant a v good sportsman, but came from middle ages and meant in chivalry and courteous love -    you defended a lady -    this dimension of champion has been forgotten – ti has to do with violence, risk, -    not simply good at pushing a ball -    must defend something as a champion

events as platforms:

OG as certain kind of media event: pragmatics, style of construction

much more than usual ready to watch

syntxactics – interruptions, momemtns of undivided attention

collective attention

semantics of consensus

once created media eevent of anything, you have a monumental clean slate -    white page that can write anything -    hmight has some connection with event r none

OG supposed to be entirely predictiable – someone will win and lose.

you know rougly what will happen

info is ‘to whom will it happen’ and how will it happen and what will be unexpected

Munich remember is terrorist – what is remembered is what i

what is information is the disruptive

Olympics like a couckoos nest. cuckhoos like to lay eggs in other birds nest

the real event looks v much like first event, but sometimes the two are not the same

all this has to do with major difference between event that is artificial and a natural disaster

they do not happen by accident

when events are expressive or symbolic, they are extraordinarily fragile.

very easy to disrupt the stymbolic event because all of it holds out of convention

it is a social construction that shows

what is more conventional than sport

ME: gratuitious logic

that this has become universal is astonishing

must build protective wall around sport

palen….. – how build protective walls around definition of an event

how prevent it from becoming a difference event

how lay property?

say this is my event not yours ME: but in your conceptualisation, the natural disaster is a ‘disruptive’ event – an aesthetics of radical transcendence into a new state of the real.

ME: does pervasive surveillence betray spontaneity? ME: Does this make you more optimistic about something like the Olympics – I am trying to reconcile your views on diversity with your thesis on information as disruptive events.

Is the possibility of your fragility possible only in the context of the constructed? In this morning’s session I felt you were slightly unexcited by the possibilities arising from Olympic organisation, but after this presentation, it appears infinitely intriguing to engae with the Games because of the possibility of disruptive events.

ME: begin with ‘what should the OCOG worry about’ and London worried about doping scandal.

north and south korea at Sydney – what would media have said if fight, because the ‘reconcillation’ is tokenistic and potentially superficial.

I support your thesis and have argued in my own work that, despite the IOC’s aim to remain apolitical, its richest historical moments arise in the context of visible conflicts of interests. Rather than worry what might spoil the Games, an organising should hope that they are memorable at all! Given what you have said about being a Champion, would Zidane’s intervention appear to correspond with this idea and to this extent was it praiseworthy or, at least, desirable?  The implication of this is how to you reconcile your thesis on information as disruptive events with the normative tendencies of media ethics.

(ME: an ethics of events – Alain Badiou).

Narration of Media Events Ma Zengqi, Prof of CUC International Communication

defining media events scripting media events (from Dayan) hiostrocial event

Questions and Answers STV

BOBO Director no religious element in Olympic broadcast avoid misunderstanding of communication.

will not be a revolujtionary transition in china’s tv. monopoly will last whether we want it or not.

according to Olympic charter, in order to let others know about Olympics, only requires sale of tv to biggest bidder.

suspension of disabileief

transformation as definition not just a surface transition

Zidane did not act as a champion of sport ethics, and he very rightly recognised so – save ofcial face

north and south korea fight -    first possibility: if rogue event – go by definition of event and if cataclysm just keep filming the queen. role of journalist is role of priest – does nto change the blessing just ehcause something else happening outside of church. -    paradox in ritual – those people who asked to fiunction as priest also journalists. as journalists most intervsting is fist fight, for priest t is the hand in hand . -    depending on case, can became priests or becime journalists in danger of ruining event -    Daneil Hellam – sociology of media – moments of consensus: sphere of consensus and deviance. define who is we and not we. and normal sphare is fear of legitimate controversy – it is legitimate to debate. when priest, on sphere of consensus – when journalist, then legitimate contrvoery ; -    do we treat all events as controvry: consensus or treats as other event s- norms of journalism -    nmatter of talent on broadcasting organisatin and talent on part of journalists. beast causitious attitude would be to save the event as long as it can be saved. is a moment when it beyrays truth. -    curious when work of journalists is also work of priests.

Chair: can we be more broad minded in defining media events. eg some media events might exaggerate.

Daniel: matter of semantics – Roman Jacobsen – polity ivanovanich – our book is about ceremonial events separted from reality. but our book is only style of events.



Professsor Xiao Huanyu, Sports Journalism Dept, Shanghai Instit of P.E. Stratification of Chinese Sports Media and Media Effect

he is member of committee of International Sports History Association

weakening of sports culture as weakening of national identity

if political tool then counter to principle of Olympism

Leon Xie Lenovo Think Big

equivalent ot nearly 30 single world championships simultaneous.y 28 events, 300 small events 35 stadiums 200 countries 10,500 athletes 15,000 journalists 45,000 volunteers 10 million on-site audiences 3.7 billion TV viewers more than 11.3 billion clicks on official website

as partner, first task to guarantee smooth running of OG provide prods and services thatn can ensure systems stability and security promote Olympic tenets throughout world industry-exclusive

promote own brand for internationalisation

raise employees morale

encourage cultural integration among employees

legacy of Olympics is diversified

common ground with Olympics

eg emphasis fair play, trustworthyness, excellence, innovtion,

combination of 2 brands assets

‘excell and exceed’

Error free performance in torino -    product and service support -    brand promotion

IT angle

Timing nd scoring score processing commentator info systems

7 lenovo internet cafes athletes favourite hang out (in torino)

desktops 3713 touch screen pc 1054 laptop 630 server 348 storage 13 desktop printers 600

100 staff members

many firsts -    of all Winter games, Torino lsargest -    first time OG provided by China

Lenovo Global Image Ambassador Plan sighed 11 athlets before event to be ambassadors

Promotions in NOC countries Marlon Devonish (Britian) is ambassador

released new products in Torino

product ads with winter Olympic themes

nearly 60 mins of tv coverage in news

active coop with olympic sponsors -    VISA and bank of china, -    leverage BOC’s financial platform

ongoing discussions with -    Coca Cola – coca cola laptop

lenov’s market share improved by 7%

improvement of staff morale

had you heard of this company before (IOC Brand survey)

China has increased enormous amount

during Torino Games, campaign contributes to LEnovo TOP awareness

Zhong Xin Assoc Prof, Journalism and Copmm School, Renmin Uni Beijing Olympic Games Enhance Internationalization of Chinese Sports TV: A Case study of CCTV-5

OGGI (Olympic Games Global Impact)

in china, Global implies impact of host city on range of concepts time frame is until 2010

indicators -    production concept -    production technology

research method -    in-depth interviews

BOBO Director

Official broadcaster cannot show violence to all world.

ME: is this true of anything that contravenes rules? eg if an athlete were to use advertising?

china control on tv less strict than European

Carolyn: what about emoption of spectators

BOBO Man according to regulations, not supposed to take pictures of emotional spectators if violent for instance.



Beijing Olympics as Megaspace Carolyn Marvin

beyond mass media

the sensuous lived exp in public space is a distinctive mode

physical space of Beijing not just a neutral space


to French, Beijing 2008 might resemble redevellpopment of medeavel france

construction of 2008 exceeds tianamen and forbidden city

will traverse these

physical form of ancient cities celestial form

3 distinct scales of comm. space (physical)

scale of megaspace (1) -    Olympic grounds, etc in relationship to one another

2.    human scale of bodies in coordinated and shifting proximity

3.    vivid messages anchored in visible public space by Chinese government media and people themselves

each scale presupposes every otherd

integration of heaven and earth has been on mind of Olympic organisers

need for unprecedented need for water at possible expense of nearby provinces

urban renewael never before seen in any Olympics

new airport – world’s largest

new expressway

2 new ringroads

178billion dollars

48 billion for Olympic infrastructure

make stadium most visible icon of contemporary china

this will embody anchor and xxx modernity power

permanent role in public lifelonglearning symbolsand images draped across physical framework of first order

ying yang, east west, commercial secular and spirital

government star alignment with peoples Olympics evident in countdown clock on side of museum of Chinese people

countdown clock stylised by Olympic dancer in emblem that might seem as government stamp of approval

5 friendlies will be as ubiquitous as XXXX

4.    most uncertain and perilous – the human scale of flow and movement of bodies for accomplishment of XXXX

visible presences and bsences

workers presence

absence of inhabitants who have been displaced

they will have vacted

performing bodies demonstrate special kind of moral XXX

Daniel dayan – symbolic events are fragile

best remedy is to make the rhetorical real

so make real

demonstrate national commitments Dong Xiaoting Assoc Prof, Guanghua School of Management, PekingUniversity of Paisley Beijing Olympic Games and the promotion of national image: subject analysis of t foreign media’s reports on four Olympic holders

national image is general or subjective impression of international community on one country

people will think of poverty war, uncertainty

subjective with soe differences

political value international diplomacy

economic value

to improve national image because will expert value to exports

eg france, when talk of its products willl add something romantic to product

in china, is cheap price and good quality, will add value to economic

communication modes 5 modes

1.    person-to-person communication

in bidding year, most talked about subject in press is politics

did not cover new media coverage of china daily

Sandra Collins Visiting Scholar, Centre for Japanese Studioes, Uni of California, Berkeley

Berlin as fragile media event

event centred event

look at ways that national identity have been represented

focus on national symbolism1first talk about Japan’s bid on 1940 games and Nagaon’s Games as first Asian hot of a Games

Tokyo 1964

constant evocation of east and west

common trope as familiar story lone to east and west

not just how they are represented but how they are translated

what is centreal is control both by ioc, ocog and broadcasting media

hwile they tried to be modern in representing japan at nagaon, CBC really wanted people eating bugs.

the visuality of tv determined what images were selected during ceremonies

cbs said they liked traditional images more than modernity japan because prettier

for spectacle of nagano, what became tradition were those itemst hat could be best captured by tv lens

local festivals were symbol of japan’s nostalgia

for cbs japan is beyond weetern modern

traditional japan exists in pockets of japan’s hypermodernity

became part of trnasofrming rural nagano into tourist destination

based on how nagano and Tokyo talked about easwt and west what does this mean for china

one world one dream attempt at harmonious

but unclear what image of china appears to west

another question will emerge as how china market itself as easetern

diff in ccultural terms or its ability to have two systems

Questions and Answers

Monroe: is there such an emphasis on physical so as to control the images - mediated physical is it nbc that controls what is mediated rather than china? how does china control what nbc does? how do particular structural forms alter national responses?

response: through the media guide but nbc interprets from this and in torino, the Italian tv company even ruined the moment – so the media inteferes with the creative moment

link: control of representation, historic moments and what is remembered

Sandra: what is mediated real… Olympic buildings are forcing them to look the same wherever you go. nbc will have to translate to audience



final presentation

Luo Qing Assistant Director of European Media Institute, CUC Global Sports Event and National Marketing Communication

define global sport event

not only media content

world cup had audience of 288million

this 2006 world cup a rehearsal of 2008 olympics

coverage time from December

exclusive right of digitised broadcasting

SOHU debate. legal conflict. they broad internet right but XXXX had something?

bottleneck of media

ME: people question that not everybody is online and that this is reason to doubt that it is revolutionary, but I would say that not everybody needs to be armed in order for an army to do its work. A NAFF WAY OF REMEMBERING A POINT I WILL EXPRESS BETTER LATER.


What will be the relationship between news organisation and indiv journalist or relationship between mass media and media of the masses

vy virtue of new media, would you please predict the Beijing Olympic image at China 2008

technological trend or journalistic new venues for some of the same things. same things in different venue different things main paper not about strategy, but about nature of ‘event’ today impossible to conceive of G8 without violent acts impossible to conceive of a butterfly without butterfly effect the book with Elio Katz division of broadcasting what is called an event not same thing – theatrical to tv you are announcing a new step Deleuze: rhizomatic event – event is a network, you know it has a centre, but not clear need to name an event, to give it an identity theatre had a certain skin for events, media enlarges events with your type of event, an event that is so pervasive that know idea where it ends. makes notion of control v probc controlling agency becomes a voice among a sea of voices notion of effect needs to be retheorised a new geography

Carolyn: events are not all equal Mere names cannot determine value of the event most imp events are those that transform human bodies most powerful rituals are those that transform bodies we are in search of something that transforms bodies not sure I agree that media event is same kind of thing as body. most powerful media event are those that reference dramatic or bloody occurrences anchors them

Daniel: no problem with this idea that heart is transformation of body but social existence becomes something with no relationship with body what is the architecture of sound image and words 17th c historians describe battle at some point, some of the battles will become famous, some of them will not what is this process that transforms this body

Monroe: how do those of us who are not in marketing try to ask how does this research get formed?

Daniel Dayan Lecture on ‘Media Event’

message assumed effects as conseqs object as message object as effect

other model of effects – from philosophy of Austin (US philosopherproposed that some statements are their very effects eg. when rpopose hisband and wife, the proposal is the effect

so one question is ‘what is visibility’?

something followed by effects

wen writing ‘medisa effects’ in context of centralised tv

clear centre and periphery

tried to show that centre wsa moving

but each time it was a centre

notion of undisputed centre is disappearing

what are the limits of the event? how say this is the event and this is no longer the event

need to have knowledge and authority about events

in past, man who was historiographer of the king

but the role was to show what should be not what is.

when a number of poeopele compete for history, 2 qustions huge 1.    who is owner of the event 2.    are there versions that are more legitimate than others 3.    are the most legitimate versions also  are they defining? 4.    c 5.    conenection between question of power and right?

Egypt is present and erased

replaced by italianity

in the name of cultural diversity, groups will do their opwn homogeneity

since I want to become diversified, I an egyption will become an Italian

two theorists:

Marcojo -    anthropologist of modern airports -    what is extraordinary when you land Is that technical necessities is such that they are a coopy of each other. not sure where you are. airpot the sanem described ‘non-places’

at Olympics, have enormous book on how to present the Games at some point, it is a forced homogenisation

ME: question about the content of homogenisation. what are the relevant parameters that indicate difference or similarity? there is a claimhere that is made about this idea.

avoid model of eida, not to do what the egyptions are doing when transforming it into an Italian opera

now about mascots – Baudrillard – simulacra -    images that have no originals -    image is image of something that does not exist -    created only to become an image

eg. mascot of oolympic games, only fn of which is to be creative for the occasion

what seems strijkng is that moving in direction that are simulacra

eg. social construction of reality once paradoxical and shocking. now we are entirely convinced of it and Olympics are immensely constructed

prob is precisely that OG is huge simulacra

a crazy man, Coubertin

people are crazy enough to take him seriously by accepting this model

converted into stadia, then cities and other real artefacts

this is what Baudrillard points to.

ME: begs the question about how anything becomes authentic

body resists simulacra

some forms of art as simulacra Chinese artists who take bodies and wrap into animals

cross limits of body

turn body into a simulacrum

until extreme, the boy resists

number of exps of those bodies in sport are real

digitalisation of culture expressed by baudrillard and resistance to digitalisation

ME: relationship between digital and simulation

works of art today installations not works of art

final point

outside events way in wih which they are parasiteic events

useful to talk of notion of ‘parasite’

we are at level of biological metaphors


media accredited and nonaccredited

ME: who is the parasite,

original event and parasitic event

event as intended vs event ass it happens

v close to issues of advertising

leads to Deleuze ‘rhizome’ – -    no fixzed limits

is it adding to event or ruining the event

if possible to prevent, is it legitimate?

who has right to define the event? who ows the event?

is the vent owned by those who organise or those who receive or nobody?

who is the intender here?

Daniel: true in  expressive events necessary dialogism limited dialogism G8 has limited participants from point of view of activists, distinction not relevant parasitism diff from dialogism the dialogism not consensual they will negotiate creae

Monroe: protection of ..

Carolyn: Simulacra not new. we have always imagined worlds not true to say that the body has only recently been important all societies do is work out how to reproduce, dispose of, etc bodies because we have this powerful fantasising capacity, how anchor it to something that cannot be denied body not only ....notion of pain cannot be denied. religions often associate pain of body become powerful constructions because it is undeniable it is an anchoring device bemused by definition of event even it s a classification – tells us what to argue over. I don’t know what the platonic even is,nor do I care why imp to establish some uver event? sometimes useful to draw distinctions just a fact of life rather a problem

Daniel: best protection of event has to do with what version of event will reach largest collective and that which reaches collective memory history we know always of winners so, to prorect is how to tell version that respects some narratives tell story with no relationship with intentions of organisers who are the narrators is crucial?

any event is a classification – I agree. there is no platonic existence of the veent any event is consequence of classification key issue is who classifies and how philosophy of Foucault from question about classification in doing so you ex a power so who names event? back to question

pain as most powerful legitimator of body

I agree

best eg of expressive event is man about to die to celebrate a cause eg suicide bomber

fits perfectly but few differences

these difference are imp

so, you are right, except model is so wide that can imclude  Olympics and suicide bombers

Carolyn: that’s a start.idea that history is only story of winners is demonstrably false nothing simple about meaning of winner but wone thing about what will be remembered is related to for Olympics lots of people whose real bodies feel the effects of the Games the most memorable human events are those that hiughlight the transformation of the boy then other factors involved eg who consents? levels of agreement? duraction? I think most powerful ritual trasformation are those  that are hughly uncertain in their outcome iif it works the magic only when some real doubt wedsding, we always know they willl marry, so uncertainty shifts to other thigs eg ‘will bride trip’ ie. introduction of uncertainty helps enhance power of transformation for Olypics, poss of max control and poss of new technology is loss of control is what makes it happen

Daniel: rejecting uorigniality of simulacra. yes, Baurdillard knows this. he made this critique to him and Baudrillard refused to answer they have always been signs and politics always about pretence, drama, etc but new forms of simulacra and more widespread when leads to recreating than creating a whole town might be less strong than creating simulacra of the bible media world enhances power of simulacra second point, history is not history of the winners (at least not always) but winners history is defined fact that it is history that which we mean by history is defined by a victorymiddle east conflict, isareal more powerful on ground, but Palestinian sotry telling is more powerful most likely that most powerful narrative will win, because can convince world of legitimacy enormous power in narrative and trhe classification of events this power is enormous and question is ‘who holds I’ and ‘who should hold it’

Caroltyn: must be careful about saying that winner is whoever succeeds in narrative otherwise do not know what actually happened doesn’t explain what happens must establish what sorts of factors are likely to produce winners

Monroe: could one say that media events mediavents not wrong because is category but I have a diff explanation about why events become dominant narratives you are criticising the idea of a book called media events both answers to question about what makes a narrative prevail

Carolyn: but, to say I’m willing to walk infrontof a tank’ governments believe that to contro the story is imp but I believe we have underestimated impc of attaching media event of reality on ground

ie. meanings of the body

v easy to say our wage is full of mrore simulacra

Daniel: objection: bodies do not speak or when they speak they do through language or bleeding which is the vocabulary of comparssion or or through ritual , which is yet another semotics since body does not speak, whole body of event is in


communiation is more than language

Daniel: yes, but there are bodies in charge of the translation

prob with body is that is both central and yet a mute reference

Carolyn: the implication of your statement is that all we need to do is figure out who is in control of the bodies and then we will know the narrative

Daniel: might be the implication, it is not what I think


Richard Kurnit

IOC controls narraive because controls vocabulary through law

IOC stands alone in law and civilisation as owner of vocabulary and therefore controller of narrative and determinant of how history is written

nobody else can have the olymnpics

when talk about ip talk about diff legal constructs, but none compare to power of ioc in owning the vocabulary

IP used in Patent\

copyright as protection of a creative expression has limited monopoly trademarks as designation of origin and source, protect consumer that relies on knwl of where it comes from and company

rights of persona – right of indiv to control and exploit identity

right to protect against false association – palming off

only with the Olympics do we have protection even of true association

in most law, is permissible to use terms of your competitor in describing goods and services there is scoep of permissible use

Olympcis succeed in passing super trademarks statutes

even us first amendment,, with exception of Olympics wone has right to use any words ans lng as true and nont misleading

only exception in US law is superstatute for Olympics

passed to helop USOC raise money

upheld in courts highest of US to surprise of many

so even though not false, you cannot use the word Olympic, Olympic symbol, the word Olympiad

no other entity has that degree of oprtection over vocab, narrative and event

as wordld talks about advancing IPR, Olympics represents an extreme asnd iff from what generally can be done in terms of marketing a product that is an alternative or knock off or cheaper version of somebody elses prouect

cant use wor d Olympic even for anti-Olympic or Gay Olympics

they are special and they own them

ME: Question about Richard Poiund

One third of money for Olympics come from sponsorships these sponsorships are about who have money to pay for

1984 – CocaCola paid $30m 1996 – 73$ 2006 - $145m

doubled each year

NBC $3.5b for right to broadcast 2000-2008 games

2012 are estimated at $900m in sponsorship value

question is what happens to sponsorship  vale can take adv of Olympics without having to pay

does that lessen the value

this is ambush marketing, which Olympics calls parsitc marketing

matter of PR

way of fdealoing with these parasitic marketers rasises questions

do consumers pay attention to sponsorship US 25% Euro 12%

do consumers appreciate that sponrtoship is necessaruy for OG Euro 39%

do consumers value logo? US 66% Euro 51%

do ambush marketers confuse consumer

1994, Amex was not a sponsor, visa was, but amex ran advertising n US that said ‘to go to Lillehammer you need a passport but you don’t need a visa)

43% failed to identify official credit card sponsor

same 43% misiundertsood that was cocacola that had paid $500m and identified pepsi

so protections of vocabulary are terribly imp

Beijing contractually obligated to proetect them

58 patent disputes

beibocog copyrighted 160 diff symbols to protect form ambushers

ambush marketing has many forms and many companies prowud to engagte

advertising without paying for event

Nike’s ways of marketing in connection with Olympics

in 1992, sponsored press conference by winning American team

also sponsored Michael Jordan who ripped tape of clothes to reveal nike logo many opps to ambush

Athens Olympics, sponsors bought all  billboard leaving blank

raises a number of issues for the media

media coverage of sponsors

is media netural? or focus on authorised sponsors?

does broadcaster provide air time

ME: does the broadcaster ot have rules to prevent this?

does media sell ad space to ambushers?

will ambushers be able to advertise in 2008 throughout china

or will Beijing and ICO persuade not to accommodate

ME: this is a matter of persuasion? no rules to prohibit?

what attention does media give to PR campaing that IOC and Beijing willl mount in relationship to ambush marketing will they be parallel marketers or parasitic marketers?

I prefer parallel markerer – since terminiology will determine the Victoria Lowe how will the media cover this phenomenon

citizen journalist and unauthorised as rebels and heroes and creative

thenike claim are nimble and creative

mE: but sponsors only buy the sports right!?

parasites who are taking braead of the table of the Olympic team who wont have adequate means to train and eat

tdifficult for media to remain neutral spin arising from unauthorised media centres

ME: but the unauthorised is not unauthorised. after all, what money for training and eating? to the extent that the citizen journalist does not broadcast or report the sports, on what are they parasitic, since it is only these elements that an OCOG seeks to protect and which are deemed worthy of protection by the IOC?

Legal Legacy of Beijing Olympics: Personal Speculations Mr. Xu Gang

what china can leave as legacy to developing countries IP protection

one imp initiative is protection of Olympic symbols according to definition of Olympic symbols, they include 6 categories 1.    5 ring, olmypic symbol, flag, song 2.    Olympiad, Olympic games, and abbrevitaions of vocb 3.    slogan of Chinese olmypic committee 4.    bidding committee 5.    name sybol etc of Beijing organising committee BOCOG 6.    other symbols related to IOC and BOCOG contract (eg. if certain enterprise is partner of bocog, then vocab is protected. (citizen journalist, if bought ticket, then regulation on back of ticket, state that any photos or commercialisation is forbidden unless authorised)

ME: but it is an inconsequential clause.

IPR is recognised internationally. so is some legal legacy.

ME: could a committee or body ensure that they are connected to any tag? eg. I blog a photo with the tag ‘beijingolympics’ – could we automate a link to the orgainising committee and make this a legal requirement? (No. would easily spam)

Court of Arbitration on Sport but what is relationship with media

ME: at the time of the Games in whose interest, besides the IOC, will it be to protect the proliferation of images online?

IOC already sold right

ME: if I take a picture of myself at an Olympic venue, does fair use allow me to publish anywhere?

need to delink IPR from Olympism – Olympic spirit

Questions and Answers

Briar: I have been doing research on logos, symbols and mascots and have detailed fact that designs are open for public competition, but when newspapers cover winners, how much money yhey get etc, never mention first place winner of design. is this to solidify copyright over designs. why not named?

Gang: something to do with Chinese system. is open to international competition, but emphasise collective wisdom to reflect diversity of china. for 5 mascots, hard to say that it is result of wisdom of any individual. we did have some careful selection with participation of many experts. definitely collective wisdom. hard to say who is first winner, since is comprehensive and joint effort.

Susan: Chinese character in first character of the word ‘Olympic’ popular everywhere eg. names of restaurants, shops,etc. association with Olympika? IOC concerned about uses of that character

Gang: character never been questioned by IOC since profound ramifications. if limit use of single character, many things cannot work. eg theories of bidding for Olympics, if limit such word cannot conduct proper discussion

Riachrd: in 2004, VANOC went after restaurant called ‘Olympia’ how would UNESCO acquire Olympic name

Daniel: forbid hoffman opera, since heroine is Olympia. linguistic politics similar to fascistic attempts to control languiage Orwell new speak: oblige use of certain words Vidar third reich – take words out from language and consider them not usuable

Richard: word London, Olympics, 2012 not used from now until 2012.

Sandra: can own vocab but not necessarily the nrative the Torino opening ceremony eg

Richard: putting aside suggested legislation in England, by contract, parties can agree to almost anything providing not contrary to pub pol. even where strong free speech, such as US (prior to current admin), …. CIA sign contract to agree to not writing a book…. as a condition to host city, IOC stipulates contract specifications, which are not revealed.

Munroe: as part of control, do IOC try to control narrative? ie cant be subversive with it?

Richard: deifniitely, in sponsorship agreement specifies restrictions.

Daniel: emperor new clothes

ME: gen observation in concluding sesson – we need a presentationa bout the politics of media structures at the Games. eg. NBC in tianament sq. how do other broadcasters feel about their interrel?

Mr. Gao Changli Vice Director for media Management

media dept supervises media and pr campaigns before Olympics begins, if media wants to talk about and report Olympics. must

I used to work at SARFT

role diff from mr maguo lee -    he is in charge of BOB

I am in charge of coordinating. he is the one to implement

if he encounters any problems, then I will trouble shoot to guarantee his work will run smoothly

how many media professionals

more than 20000

more than 5600 from print media

all accredited journalists

also others.

estimated 10,000 journalists without accreditation

will try to obtain temporary cards  (ME: check whether temporary access to venues)

beijing municipal gov will obtain service centre for them

what kind of opps for china?

new window for international cooperation

eg. bob is joint venture

according to china law, no foreign capital should enter broadcasting company but for Olympics they have created a special company, jointly sponsored by China and international partners (ME: who?)

plan to attract 700 interns for expertise on Olympic broadcasting, from unis, including CUC

sponsors also have right to hire interns

need 2000 volunteers for media management

3rd, promote technological innovation

first time to use HDTV

BOB invest 800mRMB for hiring relevant equipment now talking with local tv whether can offer other equipment for support many local then can be better equipped

tv of olympics represents highest standard in its trade eg. bob joint venture with overseas team is relatively stable

china sports university researching media management on olympcis

but in china academia, few scholars touch on this subject

imposs for more than 20,000 profesionals to be present at one occasssion, so bob must cover the event

cost effective and labour saving for media

for print media, News Service team staff members interviewing in English who will write and put into database

print media do not need to be everywhere, just open database to find out what is happening

you don’t need to go to the Games, just use media centre

media management means fair play for media professionals

for every venue, have mixed zone, which reqs that area can stand and passage for athletes, so athletes can decide whether to interview or not. offers fair chance for media professionals.

also offer other services, such as reservation of hotel, special transportation

in china, so many political events, sometimes complaints and reporters say were denied access and can become frustrated

for Olympics solved problems

for national congress for china, journalists try to stop people everywhere for interview, so do not have such concept of ‘mixed zone’

so this is an opportunity

personnel, not lack of people, but lack of internationalised talents we recruit talent from general public 6000 people applied for 180 jobs need to train people for this I had to train like a student, undettaking research, etc.

second challenge is v big: current regulations may not be in accord with Olympic principles just now Mr Shi mentioned tha last year, promised whether regulation that are against Olympics

we have 25 aspects that have contradictory laws

do not need to correct all of them, but china gov eager to fix

some modificaitojns have been made

now in process of making more amendments, such as:

how foreign media can interview inside china and whether can hire Chinese employees working permit for foreigners satellite transmissio selling foreign newspapers wireless technology access and media instruments

3rd challenge although many resources in tv, lack of coordination how mobilise resources and allocate efficiently for Olympics?

despite challenges, I personally confident that Beijing will be a success

beijign has 2 advantages that are not comparable eg. in Athens, encounter shortage of volunteers. this will not happen for us e.g Torino, lack of atmosphere ‘passion lives here’ but ‘passion left here’ was reality. e.g. London, professional team, will avoid detours

2 advantages 1. gen public passion, gallup poll indicated during bid IOC uised mori poll, reached similar conclusion of 90% of support (both for Beijing and London); do not worry about how to gather 100,000 volunteers, only concern how accommodate increasing passion of these people? some people want back door operation of hiring. 2. china gov attach so much impc to olympcis eg. new york, somme support but much protest

party secretay Liu Chi indicate determined to succeed by doing research

yesterday, with him discussing on 9 August, conference for World Wide TV consumers, so what message? what achievements have we? plans?

Questions and Answers

non-accredited venues? -    municipal gov will establish will provide with some equip, access to internet, etc and info, and interviews, to know more about china, -    entry into venues difficult but not impossible. ‘Day Pass’ licence can be awarded, but area where can work in venue is trestricted. might also buy a ticket as audience, but denied rights of accredited media,

how are accreditations decided? quota of 21,600 journalists decided by IOC

these days, they are now having a conference on accreditation

diff categories and quota to each

number per country also IOC

as for camera and written journalist decided by organising committee of each country according to quota given by IOC

each country can accord

ME: I would like the database of who was allowed ‘Day Pass’ during a Games

qualifications of these journalists?

yes, exam of qualifications.

application form should be submitted to BOCOG

in BOCOG, special dept will examine applicants

Tina: maybe word should be registered or non-registred rather than accredited I am interested in online and new media as far as I know, in Athens athlete forbidden to write own blog, while many journalists were writing their blogs Faced with new media, non-mainstream media and community media, eg if tennis fan and I a,… can I video the match through my own video. concept of citizen journalism I have my own fragmented audience

Answer: V good question and v difficult. I will try to answer. I’m not v clear about it. IOC gives handbook on media ops as part of contract and legally binding. I can do accordingly with this. your question is something marginal.

Tina: according to CNNSI, network browser is 120million, maybe they are main audience of Olympics.

Answer: all right of media is IOC, usually sell to trad media, but now discussing with euro media on sale of new media. in some countries, they sell new media right to broadcaster as well. In radio and tv, area 5, any cameras brought in should be tagged to indicate authorised, otherwise denied. audence not permitted to bring in commercialised equipment. if a personal camera can be allowed. in Athens, I brought a big personal camera and was asked to take out the working staff. but, some places said it is ok. forbidden to take pictures in some areas.

Prof Hu: I can upload my pictures from my camera.

Answer: unclear.

Daniel: Question about crowd management from IOC. if more than 20,000, then 3 categories. idea that no need to be present because database allows them to be in office receiving info if the info for this database is outsourced, then who? if certain categories of journalists rely on outsourced info, why come at all?

Answer: outsourced info is general info, eg cv of athletes. historical records of athletes, etc. we can gather this before the competition. we are cooperating with a partner. only accredited media have access to this database  (BEA: and VIPs and IOC)

‘embedded journalist’

Monroe: I take it that media management dept deals exclusively with foreign journalists how about domestic? guidelines about their coverage? what are Chinese journalists ‘allowed’ to cover?

Answer: follow IOC principles and guidelines. all preparations follow these rules. only demarcation is between accredited and non-accredited. also have small category of local reporters.

ME: expectation of 10,000 non-ac but expect proportion to be international?

answer: not sure of ratio yet. in Athens, hard to decide and in china even harder to estimate. will treat all equally.



Prof Hu: one year ago we thought abgout this meeting.