ICSSPE Pre-Olympic Congress,Thessaloniki, August, 2004-08-07

Bengt Saltin Energetic limits to performance

Leo Hsu

Concept of the good foul Bsketball Soccer

Good foul unethical -delib interfere - no equal opp for contest -    not agreed on

good foul not cheating -    cheating: intention to deceive and unfair adv -    good foul: intention to break rules  plus unfair adv

simon ‘strategic foul’ -    intention and action -    penalty might become adv cheating\break rules deilib avoid penalty inend to deceive win or gain adv

good foul breaking written rules delib expect to accept penality win and gain adv

a good player… -good intention act rightly keep spirit

concl good foul -    not cheating -    against purpose of sport -    morally wrong act -    indicates deficiency of rules -    violates spirit

Q&A Scott: opponent stalling – good player wants to play good game, so breaks a rule in order to create a good game. Is this good foul? -    response: NO

Sigmund: Good foul morally wrong act, but ethos

Leo: depends on defn of morally right: - if ethos is morally justified, then ok, but if not, then is morally wrong.


Beauty of Olympic sport typically allow more than one way of playing the game Not clear whether poss to decide between beautiful and corrupt -    elitism, sexism, racism

need to estab criteria for changing sports practices

set out Rawls’ method reflective  equilibrium

narrow -    justif ororig posn, if match -    choose strongest convictions as fixed points then work backwards

wide -    demonstrate why justified to apply in  specific contexts, by increasing breath of test

benefits -    clarification, systematic, democratic

going through process of wide refl equilib help clarify views

can uncover more systematic

democratic: in context of other beliefs. Where conflicts with other values, then indication of problem

disadv with this method -    uniersal and cross Cultural undemocratic -    indivs and their interests

diving or shirt pulling in elite soccer, decision could include everyone in debate as to whether is acceptable – these people unlikely to be aware of internal goods of game -    they’re likely to have limited knowl of game (HMMM) -    to follow wide refl  equilib

abstraction is undemocratic, since must disconnect from cultural context

democracy not about truth

while wide refl equilib is useful – it is too thin, since too far removed from sports practices to have any normative force -    could not determine which ethos is most justified.

Tradition practice bound reasoning: -    Which criteria? -    Who ought to evaluate?

Liberal interpret of practice community allows spectators, etc -    only views about goods internal to game count -    a limited  democracy, providing correct credentials

Gunnar: -    would work in new sports, with fast developing ethos -    would rely on imagination of people to a much higher degree

Mike -    liberalism v communitarianism

Sigmund Loland Fairness in spor t- critical comments on Olympic competitions

Not Fairness as indiv obligation, but ‘structural’ fairness -    when is a competition fair,not when is a competitor fair

fairness in sport -    competitions -    relevant and non-relevant inequalities -    fairness ideal -    implementation of fairness in practice

gen principles of fairness -    eliminate or compensate for inequals that exert SIGNIF influ on performance o    indivds cannot control and influt o    for which cannot be held responsible

-    conseqs for Olympic  sport?

Inequalities -    ext conditions -    person-dependent inequalities: INCLUDING GENETIC MAKEUP, BODY SIZE, ETC -    system inequalities

ext cond -    direct competition – standardisation -    indirect comp (outdoor) – seeded groups, drawing of positions

person depdendent -    sex and age, over-clasficiation (sex classification seems reasonable in some sports – where biological differences are significan, though in others, they are not justified) o    – ME: interesting analogy for genetics, would we seek to ensure athletes are all the same age? To what degree? Where it seems to have some influence on performance, we should. -    body weight – under classification



What makes a Champion?

Talent -    natural endowment or superior ability -    single most imp factor contributing to achievement -    other factors include

identified developed selected science or art?

Intuition, rolling dice, magic, sport science (multidisciplinary, evidence based)

Nature v nurture

Genetic endowment -    intrinsic potential 46xy -    structure, function, behav -    genetic manipulation -    next doping frontier?

Environmental influence -    extrinsicfactors

Suzuki Method -    all  Japanese children speak Japanese -    inborn greatness or mediocrity not known -    advanced ability can be nurtured  in any child

Why does it matter? -    parental imperative -    Olympic imperative -    Financial imperative

Jason Gulbin -    South Australian Sports Institute -    AIS -    National Coordinator of Talent Search -    Published on athlete profiling, ex induced muscle damage

Thomas Reily -    Liv John Moores -    President-elect of Int. Soc Adv. Kinanthropometry

Darlene Kluka -    Grambling State University -      Volleyball talent

Jason Gulbin Paradigm Shifts in Talent Identification National Talen Search Coordinator, AIS

Concerned about young athlete and talent identification – but much of the work is also on older athlete

Terminology Talent (identification/detection) – athletes from outside of the sport (non-specialist, quasi scientific approach, to examine predisposition for a specific sport) Talent Selection (within the sport, watching athletes) Talent Development (vital to process)

Intentiaonal Search for answers Ireland (NCTC) 2001 -    factors prpmoting and inhibiint  success of H Performance players and athletes n=207

USOC 2002 Talent id and devel of US Olympians

AIS 2003 How do elite Athlete develop n=681

NZAS 2004 Linking promise to t podium taskforce report

Why such a focus on this area?

Australian Typical spending patterns ($AUS)

Costs $37m for a gold medal

$8m for any medal

(Hogan and Norton, 2000)

reducing costs isa  huige bonus

US Census Bureau 2000

Population for Oz significantly less than other countries, so identification critical

National Talent Search Program 10 yr programme www.ais.org.au/talent in each academy, talent search coordinator phase 1: ask pe teachers in highschools to collect data for basic phys test phase 2: submitted to talent search coordinator phase 3: if athlete good, invited to talent devel programme

program  issues -    growth and devel conundrum (too much to measure, children of same age too different) -    labour intensive  (reject around 95% of data from schools) -    athlete acceptance uncertainty (not all kids want to do selected sport) -    variable enthusiasm of schools/teachers -    information privacy concerns (now, they use id numbers, rather than names) -    inability to respond to immediate needs of coaches in age group ( -    emerging adulthood and retention

paradigm shifts -    broad – focussed -    young – older -    novice – experienced -    schools - public domain -    TID

e.g Cycling -    ad in paper for talented female cyclists for 500m event -    females 18-26 -    non-cyclists -    explosive leg power -    competition history -    recruitment via the media -    initial screening n=247 applicants -    peak power, 30 sec av power, vertical jump test -    selected 26 girls -    age 16-29 (played various sports: bball, rock climbing, athletics, rowing, netball) -    lab performance: peak power: (1300w, av power: 700w; 10+yrs),  these athletes peak power: 1134W, av power: 625W – after 6weeks (gardner et al, 2002) -    performance in less than two years, 5 athletes when on to win national comps

Paradigm shifts -    simple – complex models -    from physical to physiological -    focused cohort of 32 selected, based on: o    water ‘feel’ o    school grades o    parental background (molecular biological approach will be critical in advancements)

paradigm shift -    centralised – decentralised -    generalist – specialist

Regional postgrads -    offer maters by research (cycling) – fee-free position plus stipend, to assist talent search coordinators and also develops local support

Summary Consider maximising talent harvest by supplementing traditional TID approaches

KIM SCHIMMEL Deep Play – political hierarchies  in  new Olympics

Reconstitution of Olympic space -    nato resources -    70000 troops -    greek forces -    us coast guard -    us special forces

private security entitites and gov alliances

eyes and ears of the games

cancellation insurance -    first time in Olympic history -    $170m coverage/$6.8m premium  usd -    terrorism, earthquake, landslides (not construction delay)

Olympic Spirit -    if terrorism threat to Olympics real, then why stage it in  modern world (july 26, 2004, b KI Angelopoulous)


current cost of Athens 2004  6billion euros, 1% of Greece gross product

Beijing 2008

Kristine Toohey -    (Sporting) Legacy of Sydney (Cashman) -    economic (direct and indirect) -    vbuilt environment (nonsport) -    info and education -    public life, politics and culture -    sport o    elite, mass (FOCUS ON MASS SPORT IN THIS PRESENTATION), financial, built infrastructure -    symbols memory history

Mass particpation as Olympic legacy (grassroots sport) – theory/intent -    de Coubertin -    Olympic Charter -    IOC invlve with sport for all, since 1983 (samaracnch) -    IOC Sport for aLL commission -    IOC WHO 5th World SFA congress 1994 -    SFA congress declarations sponsored by IOC, Seoul, 1996, bcn 1998, quebec 2000 -    IOC Legacy symposium 2002 (Hein Vergruggen) – to remain educational -    55 papers: mass participation addressed in 3 (2 winter sports)

Ressearch Q -    given intent, does hosting OG boost mass sport particpation in host communities?

Past Olympics -    international conf held in late 1980s in seoul, korea -    reps from 5 previous Olympics -    agreed that mass participation most imp -    but little evidence that actually happens -    2 exceptions o    LA 1984: AAFLA – runs number of programmes o    BCN (Truno, 1995) o    Sport paritipation in BCN •    1+ per week •    1983 36%

Sydney 2000 -    in aus $60m dollars per gold medal

Houlihan from ASC