Miah, A. (2008) A Critical history of Posthumanism. In: Chadwick, R. & Gordijn, B. Medical Enhancements and Posthumanity. Springer.  

"the history of posthumanism has no obvious beginning, middle or end point in philosophical thought. Indeed, the current stage of theoretical interventions on this topic seems comparable to where postmodernism was located in the early 1990s. Indeed, this analogy extends to the potential divisiveness of the concept within and across disciplines. Nevertheless, the history of philosophy is scattered with specific moments of appeals to posthuman idea(l)s. So understood, posthumanism is as much a particular reading of the history of philosophy, as it is an attempt to rework philosophical views about what it means to be human, within the context of emerging technologies. Appeals to posthumanism as a series of philosophical concerns about biology compels it towards the pursuit of novelty and originality, which explains why it is inherently future oriented. O