Miah, A. (2005) From Anti-Doping to a ‘Performance Policy’: Sport Technology, Being Human and Doing EthicsEuropean Journal of Sport Science, 5(1): 51-57 [ISSN: 1746-1391].

"the approach to performance enhancing technologies in sports should be far broader than is currently considered within anti-doping policy. Indeed, I have argued that the current approach exhibits considerable limitations, which, because of their incoherent ethical foundation, do not lend themselves to a successful or accepted policy. I have attempted to identify a number of taken-for-granted assumptions about what constitutes improvement in relation to policy, ethics, and performance. I suggest that one of the enduring problems with ethical arguments about science and technology in sport has to do with the limited breadth of discussions, which is only exaggerated in policy-making on these issues. Indeed, Houlihan (1999) recognises that, at no point since its inception, has the policy discourse surrounding anti-doping re-questioned the basic values of sport (and athletes) that it is trying to protect. While there are relatively few applied ethical issues that have clear conclusions for all ethicists and philosophers, sport appears to have made its conclusions about performance enhancement without first coming to terms with the complexity of the issue. By reformulating performance enhancement in sport and the ethical discussions arising from it, there is a better prospect for achieving a coherent theory of sporting values."