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Sport 2.0

Sport 2.0

Salford University's Creative Entrepreneur event has become a huge success, with over 400 delegates registered over 1 day. I took part in a panel this year focused on Sport Business 2.0, at which I spoke about the game development community around sports and the growing mobile health market. 

Pitch to Pixel

Pitch to Pixel

Opening at the National Football Museum this week is a new exhibition I was involved with producing, through my relationship with the museum's artistic director, John O'Shea.

I have worked with John for many years now and he has done amazing work in bioart and new media art. He has brought together an extraordinary exhibition of the last 40 years of football computer games to show how much gaming has evolved and how close art and life now come together.

The exhibition is on until June, so plenty of time to see it. It's worth spending a whole day at least, just to experience the different kinds of game interfaces and appreciate how they have changed over the years.


The Sporting Future Today

The Sporting Future Today

Wearable Technology, Augmented Reality, & Drone Cameras

Today's talk at #SportAccord went really well. It was the first time I'd used flight within a lecture and fortunately nobody got hurt. In actual fact, it was all very safe and I think it made much more real the way in which drone technology is becoming a part of the fabric of our lives.

Here are the slides from the talk

and finally, the lecture itself

eSports

eSports

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This question frames a @BBC5Live debate tomorrow night I took part in @MediaCityUK . The show was in front of a live audience and went out on @BBC1 'red button' and Twitch, where it had 83,000 concurrent viewers. You can also tune in through the BBC Radio 5 Live channel. If you are nearby and would like to come to the live show, email me and let me know. I can put you on the audience list.

Here's the full brief and deets:

We have a special programme tomorrow night which you can hear on BBC Radio 5 live and watch via the BBC Sport website and Twitch, as we explore Gaming, and the Rise of the Cyber Athlete. With computer game events now attracting thousands of spectators, the industry has teams, managers, star players, they compete in the X Games, and there's even a transfer window - so is it a sport? We'll be debating that question with those involved in eSports on Thursday 15 January from 8.30-10pm.

We’ll be broadcasting from the Blue Room at Quay House in MediaCity, Salford, in front of a live audience. It’ll have a Top Gear feel to it – with refreshment provided to all

Take a look at this cool new tech from RideOn, which I mentioned in the prog, showing how augmented reality is fusing with real world sport experience to create a hybrid gaming experience.

Social Media & Radio: A Natural Born Partnership?

Social Media & Radio: A Natural Born Partnership?

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This week, I a gave a talk for the European Broadcasting Union at their HQ in Geneva. Here's the manuscript: Are Social Media and Radio Natural Born Partners?

by Professor Andy Miah

My starting point for answering this question is to think about the term ‘listening technology’, which has become a crucial concept within the field of social media. Anyone who is doing serious social media work is likely to have purchased some kind of listening technology and some of it is not cheap.

You can pay anything from nothing to tens of thousands of pounds for this software and it provides the most comprehensive means through which you can discover what takes place across your social media channels. The software allows you to understand how audiences engage, what they like, what they don’t like, and what you can do to improve the impact of what you share.

Yet, there is something ironic about the way this concept disregards what may be considered the first form of listening technology – radio. It is as if radio is seen simply as old media or that it has nothing to offer the dynamic world of social media. Radio was the first media technology to provide a direct, bi-directional communication between producers and audiences. Its content and its values became shaped by this ability and, arguably, so did the entire history of media culture that followed in its wake.

Are things different now? If radio was so influential to the way we think about the values of media culture today, then why does it seem that radio is treated as an outdated mode of communicating, unable to monetize its content to a level that is anywhere near television or film? Is radio’s distinguishing feature still its capacity to listen to people? Is it still the exemplary form of listening technology?

To answer this, I think we have consider what are the distinguishing features of radio today? However, this is no easy task to resolve in a world of complex transmedia experiences, where even our understanding of how people consume media is complicated and dynamic. We don’t even fully understand how people use media across devices and across formats. For example, consider the following media consumer, lets’ call him Andy. Andy loves radio, tv, and social content. He consumes a lot of it, particularly through social media and online television.

Now picture Andy jumping on board an underground train in London. It’s a busy, crowded train and he has on his headphones and decides to open up his download of the latest episode of Homeland, a show of which is starting to tire. The train pulls into Covent Garden and he has to now make the dash through the crowd to the elevator and up into the street. What does he do at this point? He can’t continue watching the screen, it’s too busy. The episode of Homeland is meandering a bit - he’s not very impressed with the latest series – and, instead of switching off the device, he puts the phone into his pocket and continues consuming the content using just the audio track. Instead of watching television now, he is listening to it.

Suddenly, this tv series has become a radio drama and has switched into becoming a different kind of product. He finishes the episode and makes a decision that he may go back to the content later to see the visual version, or he may not. I am not sure how typical this example is, but it is one of many ways in which the conventions around consuming media are changing.

It works the other way around too and this is why many radio shows are producing visual content around their production. The example reminds us that it's not just the technology that is transforming the medium, it is also the way in which the technology interacts with peoples lives and how it forms new habits. So, my first headline is quite startling: I propose to you that we still don’t really know what is radio. With this in mind, how do we begin to theorize radio’s relationship to social media when, in fact, most professionals and commentators would argue that we live in times of transmedia experiences - where the distinctions between types of media content experience is being altered.

Yet, this kind of conversation is all very abstract still, so let’s make it more concrete. Consider the daily media journey of another typical consumer, John. When John wakes up, he often begins his media experience by opening up his BBC news app on his mobile phone, checking the news of the day, before even getting out of bed. This is principally a reading experience, but it’s not deep reading, just quick skim reads. The whole experience may last just 3 minutes. He then get’s up and, while getting ready – still with mobile in hand - click’s the ‘live’ button on the BBC news app, which then opens up the BBC News 24 tv channel on his phone. However, he doesn’t watch it, he just listens. It is the background audio company to his daily routine. Is this a radio experience?

After getting dressed, John goes downstairs and switches on his radio but, while listening to the BBC Today Show, he also reads the BBC News app again and, quite quickly, is reminded of how the content on those two platforms are related - the stories on his BBC News app are quite closely connected to what the BBC Radio 4 programme is discussing, but he is getting more depth from the radio.

If he really likes something he hears on the radio, he might decide to tweet about it and tag it with the @BBCRadio4 account handle or #BBCtoday tag. Within seconds, friends of his - who are also having their breakfast while listening to the show - will favorite his share and this tells him that they are each listening to the show at the same time. They are connected. This has now become a communal media experience.

This example reveals how the first part of our answer to the question about how radio relates to social media requires taking on board the idea that social media has changed how people consume media and, crucially, that the catchall term ‘social media’ is actually part of a broader set of changes to media consumption that emerge around ‘mobile media’ - consuming media on the move. Mobility then, is a decisive factor here, perhaps even more than social media.

Yet, none of this is completely new. Radio has already made inroads to social media integration. So what do we know about how social media is changing how radio producers think about their content? We know mostly that social media creates a change in how people work. People stop chasing web traffic and instead focus on engagement and dialogue. We know also that social media users include a core group who quickly become co-producers of content. We also know that the ethos of social media can change an organization’s working life and how it relates to its audience. We also know that radio listeners do go to social media platforms after listening to content to find more and they want to comment on that content. We know also that young people especially are engaged by the social media content emerging from radio. Other key principles that social media content creators advocate is a 30/70 split, where 30% of what you ahre is yours, while 70% is other things that will interest your followers. Where you can, it is also a good idea to attach an image or video to content, to promote engagement.

However, there is a lot we still don’t know about this world. For example, we know that different audiences in different countries do different things. They don’t consume social media content that relates to radio in the same way. Back in 2007, TIME magazine’s Person of the Year was ‘You’ – it came at the height of the YouTube growth and the decision speaks to the importance of authorship, participation, ownership, matters which social media users care about, and there are some great radio examples of this.

My favorite radio show is a US program called 99% Invisible, part of the Radiotopia programme. At the beginning of this year, they launched a kickstarter campaign to get their program to a weekly schedule. They made a lot of money, easily reaching their targets, because audiences want to feel invested in the media they consume. This goes beyond co-production, it has something to do with co-authorship - the desire to feel invested intellectually or creatively into something. This kind of desire underpins the citizen journalism movement. It explains why we have such phenomena as CNN’s iReport, or the Huffington Post, or Sound Cloud.

So, my answer to the question is that radio is optimally designed to maximize the benefits of social media. It was the first direct form of social media, bringing listeners into contact with presenters and giving live air space to audiences. However, I think there is one other important factor to bear in mind here.

As various media formats converge and has habits of media consumption fragment, there is a need to re-think what we understand as any singular format and, in the end, what may distinguish radio from other media is what may be described as the 'art of radio’ In a world of pervasive user generated content, the distinguishing factor is no longer the platform, it’s not having a channel, since everyone has a channel. Everyone can edit, create, and publish. What’s left, in my view, is something to do with creativity and, to be novel in this social media age, radio producers need to think about their medium as an art form, not as just a communication device. Understood in this way, social media isn’t simply a mode of rethinking how you distribute content. It isn’t even just a context for thinking about how you connect with audiences. It is about allowing your organization and your medium to re-think its values, its purpose, and its contribution to people’s lives.

As a final comment, I want to think specifically about the applications of radio to sport. I recall being at the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Games and having taken a train to Whistler, which was quite a trek. On the way back, people in the carriage were anxious to know what was happening in the ice hockey match - USA vs Canada of course. I remember people would be checking social media to find out what was happening, but actually the place where they should have been is radio. The technology is at a point now where, as a radio commentator, you can deliver 10 second live clips - with minimal delay - across social media platforms.

This capacity requires radio producers to re-think how they relate to platforms - the radio waves are part of a wider ecosystem of audio distribution and engaging people differently with audio becomes all the more important in a mobile world where we struggle to ‘watch’. Even technologies like Google Glass are unlikely to change that situation. In an entirely screen based world, the importance of listening becomes all the more distinct and valued and this is why radio, perhaps more than any other format, has the capacity to really innovate with social media.

I met a man recently who has a hearing limitation and wears a hearing aid, which he has hacked to allow him to hear the presence of a wifi signal. He played the sound to us, which was a kind of crackling noise, fluctuating in volume. It might turn out that the social media trend leads us to think about our sensory capacity to hear in different ways and this may be the most exciting thing of all for people working in radio.

So as a concluding point, the power of radio – the art of radio – may not be found in its history, but in the way that social media is compelling it to re-think its future. The kinds of sounds we have typically heard from radio may be quite different from what we hear in the future and sports are fantastic contexts in which to explore this world.

Thank you.

Sport, Technology, & Social Media

Sport, Technology, & Social Media

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This week, I was in Plymouth giving a public lecture on social media and sport. The lecture spanned wearable technology such as Google Glass to virtual reality simulations.

Sport Accord Convention: Youth Club [VIDEO]

Sport Accord Convention: Youth Club [VIDEO]

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The Sport Accord Convention is talked about as the United Nations of Sport, where all Federations come together. This was my second year of being a speaker at the Convention and I chaired a session called the 'Youth Club'. It was the first time ever that the Convention had put together something like this and the average age of panel members was approximately 23 years old. It was a great session and the feedback was awesome.

Oscar Pistorius is more than just a fallen hero

Oscar Pistorius is more than just a fallen hero

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This entry was initially published as a blog piece, but later in the Huffington Post

It was only a few days ago that the world of sport was talking about nothing but Lance Armstrong. However, the case surrounding Oscar Pistorius dwarfs any kind of doping scandal, past or present.

A lot has been written about how the tragedy will mean the loss of a hero for the sports world and for people with disabilities. But, Pistorius isn’t just any old sporting hero. He is the most important athlete of the 21st Century and this fallen idol will mean that our social world will suffer a little longer from prejudice than it would otherwise have. Unlike most athlete superstars, Pistorius transcended what happens on the field. Debates about him were of significance for society at large.

His capacity to rival the speeds of so-called able-bodied athletes brought into question the use of that term at all and made us believe that a bionic Games that was faster and better than today’s was just around the corner.

In this world, it would be the technologically modified athlete we celebrate and it would be a world where disability no longer mattered. Everybody could compete on a level playing field and sponsors would fund Paralympic sport as much as Olympic. There may even no longer be a division between the two. There would be only one Olympic Games and only the best athletes competing.

This is now all jeopardized by the fact that Oscar was the only Paralympian campaigning to bridge the two Games. No other athletes have made this case and so the issue may simply disappear from the headlines. The IAAF may have an easier time because of these events and the world of sport may generally breathe a silent sigh of relief that there is nobody else pursuing the same campaign.

Just before the London 2012 Olympics, I wrote an article saying that Pistorius would be the most remembered athlete of the entire Games. I think this is even more likely now, but obviously for very different reasons

This is the second most tragic element of the circumstance, after the loss of a human life. An athlete whose entire future was still yet to be written, but which promises so much, seems like it is now etched in stone.

Unless Pistorius finds a way to redeem himself through the trial, then we may never know how much the world has lost by his absence in public life. It wouldn’t be the first time that a celebrity has later found sympathy from the public and managed to recover their place as a role model.

Oscar Pistorius is so young, with so much still ahead of him -  as an athlete, an advocate, and an ambassador - the entire world will be made worse of by this recent, horrific event, if no recovery is possible.

American College of Sports Medicine (2006, May, Denver)

ACSM Eduacting Physicians to Combat Doping: a key step in the fight Dr Alain Garnier, WADA Medical Director

Not responsibility to educate physician, not funds. But to educate.

What is dopng for physicians? -    ethical perspective – cheating -    juridicial perspective – rules violation -    medical perspective – therapeutic use in intentionally diverted into misues or abuse by athlete or entourage

athlete needs a neutral and well informed advisor

program for physician: proposed content -    introduction: rationale to ban doping -    the reality of doping – comeporary doping practices -    athletic entouerage – responsibilities -    vulnerability – critical periods, personalities at risk -    alternatives to doping – training and nutrition -    statute of a drug -    prhiobted list and TUE -    practical issues

aims of program -    to achieve common medical aproacht  in sport medcicine  (harmoniation/best practices) -    to explain t content of the list and TUE process -    encourage use of non prohibited alternatives -    to share exp and knowl

advisor and confidante an advocate for t health of the athlete not providing help in overtaing or supra physio

fight against doping is part of physicians role

Simulating Altitude Training Don McKenzie, UBC, Canada

Principles Does it work What are the effects? Is it safe? What’s new?

Simulated altitude environments -    hypobaric chambers -    normobaric hypoxic systems

when go to altitude, invoke changes across oxoygen cascade

Townsend, N E et al  JAP 93, 1498-1505, 2002 -    from AIS study

Voster, Glan, E et al jP 567(20) 689-699, 2005.

Sheel, A With et al JAP, 100: 1204-1209, 2006.

Lusina S et al, J Physio, (submitted 2006) -    1hr a day, 12 days, signify upregulation

thus, when exposed to chamber, more than sleep happens

Periodic Breathing in sleep -    intermittent hypoxemia -    periodic arousals -    loss of total, slow wave and REM sleep -    excessive daytime sleepiness -    carryover of sympathoexitation?\ -    vascular vasoconstriction during ex?

T Kinsmane, et al JAP, 92, 2114-2118, 2002

Brugniaux, JV ert al JAP, 100: 203-211, 2006

Katayama, K. et al, High Alt Med Biol, 4: 291-304, 2003

Safety -    companies say that they are safe.

What’s newL: the ‘normobaric oxygen paradox’

Balestra, c et al  JAP 100: 512-518, 2006.

Does it work? -    probably -    Levine, etc suggest dose response -    Periodization schedule? -    Nutrition -    Training?

Placebo effect?

Effects? -    alters chemosensitivity/respoiratory control -    alters cardiovascular regulation -    inc sympathetic ns activity -    alters sleep pattern -    potentiation of training post exposure

what do I think? -    it’s a training tool -    complex integrate physiology -    as effective as t scientist, coach and athlete who use it -    demonstrable, signif, pyhysio effects, some of which may influence performance

The Ethics of Altitude Trianign D.C. Malloy, University of Regina, Canada

Training -    ‘the basic goal of training is to use a variety of external stimuli (ex, environment, ..’ (Burke,2006) -    outcome is improved performance

Ethical Training – theory and practice

What is ethical traiiung? – that which results in the best performance? (Teleology – the good) That which employs acceptable means? (Deontology – the right) That which is genuine to the indiv ontologically and physiologically? (existential – the authentic)

The Good: performance outcomes -    goodness of act measured by outcome in producing ‘pleasure’ -    does act avoid pain?

The Right: deontology -    the right o    divine o    social contract •    does training regime X satisfy critieria set by govern bodies? •    Often where debate ends in sport o    intuitive – how we reason.

The Authentic: existential good and bad faith -    authentic physiologiy -    authentic philosophy -    existential – a philosophy of genuineness, freedom and responsibility

adaptation of t human body to a stimulus that does not exceed genetical optential moving t body outside its normal (geuine) physio range -    tf, training regime is authentic if introduces substant that does not bypass training stimulus or beyond range -    eg. Altitude training and nitrogen tents stim prodn of epo within indiv’s normal physio range/genetic potential

inauthentic physio - adaptation of t human body tro stimulus that EXCEEDs genetic potential

inauthentic physiology training

authentic philosophy -    good faith – I am what I am becoming -    bad faith – a way of estalibhins that I am not nwhat I am

Can athlete look in mirror and say ‘this is me’

Is this making me someone I’m not?

Ethical Decision Tree

Questions and Answers

Question: WADA talks about banning hypoxic, are they concenred about ethics or long term effects?

Olivier: must take into account fact that some athletes try to make those devices.

British Association of Sports Exercise Medicine (2006, March, The Belfry)

BASEM, 2006.The Belfry

Alfredson Vacularisation Management

Treatment-Difficult! -    where does the pain come from? -    mid-portion -    insertion -    proximal (patellar Tendon)

Questions and Answers

Question: how much pain warrants injection?

A: pain that interferes with your daily life

Question: cynical about 70% success rate.

Cathy Speed Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT)

‘if a lot of cures are suggested for a disease, it means that the disease is incurable’ (The Cherry Orchard (1904) Act 1, Chekov)

therapeutic ultrasound

Low Intensity Ultrasound

Standard

Shock Wave -    initially lithotripsy

Non Union

Rotator Cuff!

ESWT

Technical issues Dosage Proposed  mechanism Clinical evidence and interpretation Advers

Does it work? What would it mean to prove to you that it works? People don’t understand economics particularly well, but they value being part of the conversation about the budget. Better and worse systems

The difficult models I presented actually articulate a set of political relationship -    the professions

it is part of your job to do this. Currently, you can take it or leave it, but not for long

stem cells pregnancy magazine

Motto

how evaluate -    eg. Science cafes – their existence proves the need, it is irrelevant whether you can prove people understand

you don’t need to ensure we all undersand the science

pyramid -    controlling information -    promoting healthing

Psychology confounding variables increase with chronicity

PEMT:, miuscle pain and gender difcs Eugene lyskow, nebojsa kalezic -    gender deifferences in pain sensations

lunch

tissue engineering -    mesenchymal stem cells -    in vivo

currently not a clinical tool

using post-natal – adult (haemopoietic) stem cells from bone marrow

(other methods: from fat or tissue (endogenous activation in tissue itself)

are there stem cells in tendon -    tendon-derived cels have poorer differentiation potential than MSCs -    Strassburg et al (Peter Clegg’s work at Uni of Liverpool) -    Explains whyt equine tendone injuiries fail tot repair adequately

Hypothesis -    implanting stem cells wold provide cell source capable of synthesising a matrix more like tendon and less like scar tissue

action? – orchestra -    musician: stem cells -    conductor: orchestrates formation of tendon-like matrix

characs of mscs -    in vitro

differentiation of MSCs -    stem cells implanted systemicall in foeti populated all mesenchymal tissues (Liechty et al, 2000) o    differentiated into target cell popn in each case

stimulus for diffn? – -    mechanical load -    contact with cells -    contact with matrix -    growth factors

put undifferentiated into tendon

Differentiation potential of MSCs cultured on tendon matrix: an in vitro model -    mscs capable of migrating, proliferating, expressing ecm proteins found in tendon

experimental models -    surgical models o    rabbit tendon (young et al, 1998) o    rat patellar tendon (Hankemeier et al, 2005) o

Roger Highfield ‘ have we oversold the stem cell dream? ‘Daily Telegraph, 2005) -    field is high on emotion

‘Cool! Ground breaking stem cell science could reduce… -    newspaper article on stem cell and horses

Sports Injury and HBOT Jules Eden London Diving Chamber

All info on website

Set up online medical company called eMed

Based in St Johns Wood

HBOT has been used to treat: joint, muscle, ligment, tendon injuries

When used with physio time of recovery reduced by 70%

Definition: wher a patient breaths 100% osygen intermittently while the pressure in t treatment chamber is increased to a point higher than sea level ie. >1abs

Various names: hyperbaric, recompression, decompression

Monoplace or multiplace

Not used as much as it should be

UHMS – society for hboc - to use hbo, need

effects -    air/gas embolism -    co poisoning -    crush injury, compartment syndrome and other acute traumatic ischemia -    enhancement of healing in problem wounds

Princoples

Boyle’s Law – bubble crusshing Dalton’s Law – gt thje ppo2 up Henry’s Law

So,

Exposure to 2-3 times normal atmospheric

People believe just binding more o2 to haemoglobin Actualloy, you are pushing it into plama A quantity great enough to sustain life in the total absence of hemoglobin

At point of injury, when you need most o2 to promote repair

Time is the greatest factor athletes -    this is different outside of sport

ME: not sure this holds. Most people will want it asap.

Medical Mantra Medical treatment is the balance of benefits for the symptoms versus the side effects to the rest of the body

Does hboc have any side effects? Yes, but rare -    middle ear barotraumas (must pop your ears) -    claustrophobia – people have impression they are about to go into a coffin -    oxygen toxicity – you get this if you breath pure o2 at 3x, for a couple of hours. Not with this! -    Boredom -    NO (problem with) DOPING

Scottish Study – with Celtic

Who cant go in -    untreated pneumothorax

relative contraindication

www.londondivingchamber.co.uk www.uhms.org www.hboevidence.com

Lance Armstrong used to recover

Questions and Answers

Evidence of enhanced performance?

No trials to suggest this

Mesotherapy

Discovery of mesotherapy Dr pistor – discovered

Polyvalent therapy

Anti-doping control -    used lidokane, was prohibited some years ago, not allowed intravenously -    when controlled, could not conclude whether intra or local -    nothing in urine after 4hrs

Brian English Arsenal chief medical officer

Nuscle Injury

‘the only predictive factor for a hamstrong injury is a previous hamstring injury’ Karim Khan

(Is there a genetic predisposition?)

8 days back to playing field, rather than 16 is a big deal

coach can influ number of soft tissue injuries

some athletes just seem more susceptible – thus, genetic?

‘anything extra that may help, I’m pretty inclined to use it’ -    providing nothing banned within it

WADA – if stimulates natural growth factor should be banned substance – but I continue to use it.

Tour de France -    actovegin use, become a little addiction -    WADA said intravenous actovegan will look into it, banned for now. Now, cant have without medical justification ‘massive loop hole’

Not accelerate repair, but prevent the delay

Perhaps employers in the future will expect return from injury quicker

As medical practitioner, you are allowed to inject substances of your choice.

Actovegin banned intravenously during pre-competition, but not banned outright

Everything geared to recovery

Questions and Answers

Do you treat elite as non-elite?

A: yes.

Question: French diff from English. Would there be a role of these treatments in uk

Brian: we are cautious than some of European doctors. Some think we are needle phobic.

Chair: if have 3 kids and 3 weeks off work, then v serious; perhaps more than the elite athlete who loses £60,000 for three weeks, so sure should be entitled.

Cathy: most common question I hear is there anything in it that could dope positive? It has many things in it

Brian: Maximuscle …. Is pharmaceutically produced, so what is says on it, it has, nothing more.

Cathy: side effect of actovegin

Brian: hypertensive when intravenously.

Autologous Blood Injection for the Treatment of Tendinopathy David Connell Consultant Musculoskeletal Radiologist Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital London

www.devilsfun.nl

angiofibrolastic degeneration

tendon healing

3 phases - brief period of acute inflammation – but not cause of pain

after 6 weeks, remodelling – cell to fibre

physio very important

over a year, fibrous to scar-like tendon over 1 year

treatment

while steroids relieve, no evidence that promote healing

steroids act on the pain fibres -    only on a delta fibres

Cryriax, J, J  Bone Joint Surg 1936

Surgery most effective, but considerable postop downtime

Dry Needling

Bathe in local anaesthetic -    dry-needle x2 -    3 weeks apart -    rehab/physio

nothing in lit stating efficacy, but perhaps 65%

autologous blood injections

treatment for refractory tendinopathy -    fail to respond to rest/physio/ cellular and humoral mediators -    stimulate -    pgdf/egf/fgf refractory tennis elbow -    28 patients o    blind solitary injections o    22 pain free

objective to report findigs in a group of patients

david.connell@rnoh.nhs.uk -    trial for test

blood spinning injection of platelets we did try that , centrifuging blood and taking the surface platelets – which is where best is located but haven’t needed to do this. Just use whole blood.

Prolotherapy = ligament schlerosant injections John Tanner

World anti-doping agency Brian English -    wada have said blood spinning is definitely doping

Are WADA?

Richard Budgett: They are not concerned about autologous blood But if treat blood to concentrate, then it would be injected growth factors, so break rules, but no way they could find that out. So if you do this, you need a TUE.

A: we have had standard TUE and had them approved, but not for spinning or intravenous. Also tried serum.

Cryochamber

Tendinopathy: NSAIDs, GTN, RF, others and, why not, surgery! Nicola Maffulli Keele University

Most athletes do not want to become healthy, just to be well [fit]

As doctors, want to promote repair, but patient only wants to return to competition

World Anti-Doping Agency Gene Doping Symposium (2005)

WADA gene doping Symposium4-5 Dec, 2005, Karolinska Institutet

Welcome

improve people's health. misuse of medical tes

Richard Pound

banbury conference

wada

OM contributions shared by NOCs - but..

gene doping research $3m

gene doping panel in WADA, help with detection

new results - WADC, mar 2003 -

ME: who are stakeholders of gene doping?

Olympic charter amended stating that only countries signed to  WADC can participate in Olympics

UNESCO convention Oct 19 2005 120 supporting states, observed by all 191 states

gov actions - now wider gov support

gov can do sth sports cannot sports cannot address trafficking, seizing, regulation of med professionals

trying to widen network of stakeholders recently, an athlete committee athlete outreach committee

gene doping inevitable

athletes believe they are immune to risk and their entourage seem not to care

New Trends in Anti-Doping Arne Ljungqvist

need to be ahead of the game first time in history

purpose - describe recent developments

some key years 1960 olympic games in rome - danish cyclist died in 100km road race. ioc took action, as first televised Olympics. athlete dying in front of ioc 1961 ioc mc 1964-72 testing for stimulants 1972 munich first serious case, us athlete ephedrine, controversial, still claims medal 1974 testing for AAS - tentative for 76 games in montreal 1983 IOC labs 1988 seoul -arne gave press  conference in rel to  johnson's positive. huge press. death of sport question. response was that this should be stopped. led to unified global effort. iron curtain drop changed this. 1999 ioc code, wada - changed med code into antidoping code 2004 wada code 2005 unesco convention

arne was olympian in1952 and nothing then,

doping code explanation

doping is definedas...

violation new 4. inadequate whereabouts information 8. administration, assisting, encouraging

prohibited list - wada publish each year

criteria - enhance, health risk, spirit of sport

(two of three)

doping need not be cheating to be banned

could say that any substance could be on list, and this is a legal prob

need common sense

substances w similar structures likewise banned, but legal difficulty to try

prohib method enhancement of oxygene trtansfer

distrib of substances 2004 - 36% anabolic 0.1% oxygen transfer enhancement

TUE

anti-doping strategy - info, educatioo, doping control,research

wada allocates 25-30% of budget to research vasst improvement since 2000

ioc never took this responsibility

strategy of doping controls - in comp - unanncounced out of comp - random - targeting (intelligence)

ME: what is current status of intelligence on gene doping?

need to improve intell

ME: how?

recent negative envts

- salt lake city experience, tendency  to make use of most recent advancements. 3 cross country skiers on aranesp - The Sweeney Experience' 2002: first reported that athletes had been contacting him to see how they could benefit; - The BALCO affair 2003; shows illegal production jsut for doping - The Athens experience 2004; first olympics at whch people banned for non-analytic positive; greek athletes; were using artif device for urine - Further designer drugs 2005; don catlin found further egs

The maked Machine false urine

REcent positive evens

SLC2002 -showed that we are close to athletes; these were subsrtances that had been on market for some months - Athens - pursued cheats successfully - WADA Code - UNESCO convention - Research fund - Proactive initiatives

whycontinue fight? - in ethics session. must be unbiased ME: this is too far. to pose all or nth is mistaken.

funl facts must be mentioned 1. no support for such an idea in t sports communioty - there was a debate. but it no longer exists. everyone agrees 2. wada andunesco convention, political estab has reinforced support 3. athletes themselves dont want it. athletes commisions are strongest

ME: when asking athletes about their feelings, hat do you think they are rejecting?

President of K: what are legal conseqs for med professionals?

AL: any person assisting may be banned. will not receive accreditation to be Olympic doctors. but we have limited legal action in civ law. at World Championships some years ago, some finnish professionals weree encouraging, investigation into law. found that action could not be taken. no legal ground .this changed the law.

The Irrefutable Success of Gene Transfer for Therapy of Human Disease) Concepts and techniques of gene therapy - applicationsv to doping in spoprt Ted Friedmann

give overview of underlying baasis of justif for potential of gene doping

rationale is direct outgrowth of gene therapy itself a controversial and difficult field

now a real area of cliincal research basis to think that direct attack can be and has been therapeutic

gene based doping - realstic poss imminent threat to sport - same pressure  that sustain drug doping  will lead to gene doping - based on advances in gene therapy

Evol and current state of gene therapy -controversial history - tools and concepts still immature - clinical reality, effective treatment, poss  cure -- serious risks, tolerable in context of therapy -- still subject to oversight and regulation

gene therapy for human genetic disease science, 1972, mar 3, 172, n 4205 friedman and robin

Proposal for human gene theerapy - needed - technically diffi -use disabled viruses as gene transfer vectors - many ethical and policy problems - reqs local and nationaal oversight - likely to be used for non-therapeuticapplics (enhnacmenet)

dark side broader than gene doping - enhancement of human traits in a eugenic sense.

LeRoy Walters, Kennedy Institute, Georgetown - somatic cell - germ cell

two major technical advances

recombinant DNA -cohen and boyer, 1973 - first efficient transfer tools (engineered viruses), 1981-1982; retrovirus vectors - Temin, Weinberg, Scolnick

retrovirus 1981-2 random integratioon, insertional mutagenesis adenovirus adeno-associate virus liposomes naked dna

ref: j biological chemistry; 1984, 25 12, 7842-9 - restored gene function and reversed phenotype

optimisms - beginnings of human clinical studies - 1989-90 - high expectations - exaggerated promises

gene transfer trials by year crash in 2000

ME: why? at the time of HGP completion

photo of jesse gellsinger

gene directly injected into liver

3 or 4 days later after injection, died react to vector not gene

Uni of Pennsylvania OTC study - a patient death -1999 - adenovirus vector to transfer ornithine transcarbamylase gene (OTTC) directly to liver - patient (JG) developed explosive

visible depression in Society of Gene Therapy

yet, heard of a diff technique

Paris study, Fischer, Great Ormond St LondonX- SCID

photo of Bubble Boy syndrome child - protect from inections

X-linked SCID,sevcombined immunodef dise - mutations in..

ex vivo study

introduiced to bone marrow cells

REF: NEJM article ,Fischer, Alain, lead Hacein-Bey-Abina, S -sustained correction of X-linked severe combined immuno

complete recovery - complete immunecorection 14 patients - some >6 yrs

but at high cost - 3 cases of T-cell leukemia -direct result of treatment - responsive to chemotherapy but reqd eventual one marrow transplantation - one death 2004

other two aree still alive and no evidence of residual disease. but diff to ustd

three cases of leukemia during effective treatment of x-scid deficiency

LMO2 oncogene has been disrupted - this is why we have leukemia

Why is this result imp? - proof - can be therapeutic - all previous studies ,potential or marginal benefits ,theoretical risks - no risk/benefit -X-SCID -quantifiable beenfits - gene transferrresearch becomes gene therapy - opens new era for med

legitmately therapy not just gene transfer

current successful therapies - X-SCID - q14 patients ,3 leuk, 1 death - ADA-SCID - 4 patients - prolonged - chronic grnaulomatous disease -2 patients

addl imminent and probable successes - cancer vaccines - introdcue genes (GM-CSF, CD40) to cancer cells to enhnace immune response (melanoma, CML, others) - restore tumour suppressor fn (p.53) - some photoreceptor degeneration andblindness -restored sight in blind dogs by gene transfer into retina - coronary artery disease

intra-tumoral...

CNS prophylaxis, new chemo agents

additional info into genome, which maintains mutant gene

now, te to fix defect - to change to wildtype gene from mutant

emerging tes - siRNA for gene modulation -especially for dominant diseasee - vector targeting -gene deliv - targetd gene modifi -zinc finger delivery of transcription factors ,transgenes

so, darker side -therapy is poss, what about enhnacement?

socially and ethically 'acceptable' enhnacement -we already do pharma, so why not gene - reelvant genes are becoming identified - tf, applic of gene tools to non-disease traits seem inevitable -

extension to sport - one of most imminent - unlikely to conform to standards of human clinical research -safety, informed voluntary consent

ME: why is informed vol consent unlikely?

sport or bioengineering? is it still sport?

ME: yes ,good photo, the q might be whether he would have been ahigh jumper if he had info about his genes

germ cell -therapy or enhance?

eugenics - old eugenics of late19th and early  20th C - new eugenics based on genetics - new potential for restrictive ,discrimintory

conclusions - all human gene transfer  -immature ,exptl clinical research, not standard of care -but if i had a child with X-SCID, i would opt for genetic approach - proven concept ,truly therapeutic - many dangers, known and unknown,reqs oversight

risks tolerable in light of disease ,but for healthypeople?

conclusion -sport may lead the way - opp to define social atts and responses

in US, not entertaining proposals for enhancement

discussion

how is read out monitored ?/ dosage? how follow efficacy of therapy? if so, might be poss to detect.

ME: what lev of cooperation is expected from biotech industry?

change position but

Goldspink Kathy Howe, killing off cells. factor 9 expt study shelved becuse of immune response to vector

holy grail is sequence correction

goldspink:

tom: surprised by one thing, which  was your optimism. I sat on FDA committe which looked at gene transfer when French study began.  what is your assessment of the science. is it  likely that LMO2 will not be repeated.

Ted: it hasnt in

Olivier: you refereed to over 700 studies, by RAC. do we have idea of success rate? are we aware of  some genes, neverr been poss to transfer. some genes more capable of expression than others. how long to go from animal model to human.

Ted: not all of 700 studies led to clinical. need to learn much more about how to turn genes on and off.

Olivier: side effects?

Ted: dont see them until you see effect.

Olivier: procedure itself not harmful?

Ted: in Gelsinger it did. will not see ath going wrong until see sth happening

Q: state for muscular.

Q: leukemia. single gene as key factor .also v shiort period - 3-4 years. usually cancer 10yrs. sth peculiar of case , it is activation of agene. are ways to avoid activation.

Ted: but not activitation, but disruption

Q: 3rd case special since dif

Odile: transgene role is enormous. cannot claim thatt there are no te that could counteract potential activations.

Chair: what is view on detection of gene transfer? willl this stop? or need legislation on other level?

Ted: no, wont be enough ,but will be strong deterrent.

Coffee

Effects on organ systems/tissues

Heart -    bigger, greater stroke vol -    inc maximal cardiac output

Blood vessel (heart and trained skel musc) -    more capillaries -    improved dilatory capacity

Blood -    ic total amount of red blood cells -    evevn larger expansion of plsma vol, reduced blood count in a blood sample

Adipose tissue -    reduced amount

Connective tissue/bone cartilage -    inc amount/strengthened

efects on organs systs

endocrine system -    insulin sensitivity -    catecholamine and gH response to ex

skin

imune systt

lungs

nervous system/brain -    inc capillaries more utilised

what factors influe performance

bouchard, C. et al 2005 -    gene map -    summarise what has happened in last year -    prediction of health or fitness -    no agreement yet on ‘key genes’ using popn genetics -    difficult to validate – separate population studies reqd

how study human muscle ‘phenotype’? -    skeletal muscle. -    How dna, to mRNA to protein -    Strength and endurance mapped to samples

Considerations -    species -    type/duration/intensity of intervention o    aerobic, resistance, inactivityy -    acute or repeated -    sampling site and time(s) -    amount needed -    mRNA and/or protein -    localisation -    housekeeping genes/normalization procedures o    complicates, regulation -    method – broad or narrow?

ReF: fluck et al 2005,

REF: Mahoney FASEBJ 2005 -    after acute ex, more genes activated in sets -    limited by number of biopsies you can take. Scientists would ilke one every hour -    but used 3h and 48hr

Generating a human endurance ‘transcriptome’ -    24 sedentar subjects -    240 musc biopsies -    24hr post ex -    measured phenotypic by important

500 genes ‘activated’ by ex in humans - COL3A1, FABP4, IGF-1, TGFBR2

what prdicts for improved cycle performance following 6 weeks training?

What genes regulate -    better oxy deliv

Timmons et al FASEB K, 2005

Gene ontology analysis

PGC-1 inc by training in following hours

Ameln et al FASEBJ 2005 -    HIF-1 drives expresion of epo. -    And VEGF -    At protein levvel, was regulated by acute ex, bound more to Dna, drives target genes,

Does epo play role in muscle? -    perhaps, protective or androgenic -    thus, epo might have systemic and local eeffects beneficial for performance

receptors of VEGF go up – inc to manipulate receptor side

5wks of training, VEGF goes up

to develop gene therapy fully, must understand cocktail of things that are going on

in gene therapy, CV side things are going on, but must know more to grow complex structues such as vessels

Targets of interest at geen level -    transcription factors, angiogenic, mit biogenesis, hypertrophyt

cell doping -    naked cells -    encapsulated – put into tissue, then remove. – safe for cheater, since no trace. Can be done with epo and inserted anywhere. -    sooner than one might expect. As many cell trials. And move towards gene modified cells. -    Yesterday, venture capitalist in san diego, using fibroblaysts, for parkinsons

Questions and Answers

Question: focused on up regulation, but what was freq v down reg

A: usually more up regulated, but perhaps a quarter, 3-4times more up than down

Question: how do trained, elite athletes differ?

A: some surprising, some expected. Not easy to predict.

Question: can distinguish

A: no of subjects needed to study polymorphisms v high, often differe considerably. W n24, impossible

Question: important?

A: extremely. But every thousand base is … bypassed polymorphy by looking at integrated response

Question: study in male, not female? Same for female? Each react differently to training

A: what would you expect?

REsponse:

Response: total of 16mins, can dramatically inc endurance performance, no gender related differences. Might depend on ex mode.

Olivier: concern of cell therpay, problem earlier than gene doping. Today, company proposing use of tendon cells to strengthen repair of horses. So is coming at commercial level soon. One key element in detection is time window we have. You have observed some transformation at mRNA level. What is order of magnitude of change?  Concern that signature will be lost.

A: presume that gene copying intensively is more stable and chronic than when you train. I would guess there is an elevation of gene doping product.

Olivier: what level should we detect?

A: problem is legal. Ban people that have strange pattern? Cell therapy been around for long while. Blood transfusion for over 100yrs. Bone marrow transplant since 70s, skin transplant, etc. cell therpay not new, but gene modified cells is novel and cells that are hidden.

Olivier: cells that grown and reinjected

A: yes, like cell

Andren Sandberg is rapporteur

Lunch

Session 2

Chair: Odile Cohen-Hagenauer

Vectors and Delivery Methods C. I Edvard Smith, Karolinska

Gene therapy -    gene could be 10,000 base pairs -    virus contains maybe 3,000 base pairs -    human genome, thousand books with thousand pages

today, cannot fix gene, but put in an extra one

concept oif a gene

if cell goes through many divisions and gene is in episome, will be lost. So if need to put in cells that divide many times must go for integration. Only way to ascertaint hat will be in cell.

Problem with going from outside of cell to nucleus

Local and systemic gene therapy

Gene transfer techniques -    non-biol methods (plamids, oligonueclotides) o    liposomes and polycations (lipofections) o    electroporation o    in situ naked dna injection o    gene gun (biolistics) -    biol methods o    transduction (virus-mediated transfer, most efficient)

drawbacks to viruses

DNA complexes – plasmids or oligonucleotides -    insert size no limit (can use long stretch of DNA, makes possible sequences, marker of normal) -    episomal – normally this; outside chromosome -    short-term expression -    broad host range -    unstable in vivo

is possible to remove all foreign elements. Ie design genes that do not carry any foreign elements, so  harder to trace

Virus as a vector for therapeutic genes, eg hiv

How use a virus?

Concept: the packaging cell line

IMAGE

Empty particles – allow introduction

Packing cell line 2nd generation

There are a number of viruses that can be used -    ecah has benefits and drawbacks

Concept: RNAi – how does it work?

IMAGE

Recent phenomenon, a decade, first observed in plants. If introduce double stranded rna has different features

In mammalian cells, if, instead of long dsRNA sequence, use short siRNA molecule, can have same effect. Si = short interferring

Regulates gene expression

Can achieve stable expression – deliver shRNA

Vectors contain unique sequences that can be trace Provided you know where and how to look Apart from t vectors there are their products

Questions and Answers

A: when expresss siRNA, is v short.

Question: if do cell culture, get up to 10,000 fold interference.

Question: will day come when can do entirely in vitro?

A: yes, should be. But viruses also have problems. They rely on cellular machinary, so good but also limitations – must use normal process of making proteins. If do invitro can avoid regulatory problems.

Vectors and delivery methods – vector and transgene vector detection H. Haisma

www.rug.nl/farmacie/tgm

in non-viral vectors, mostly have much chemical stuff added to them to allow entry to cell

adenovirus

shedding data, gene therapy stdies

shedding

excreta – semen, stool, saliva, urine, blood germ line – sperm, ovum

environmnent – next of kin

if people treated with gene therapy, can find vectors in almost any of tissues

do not find anything in germ line - ie no transfer to next generation

Gene doping detection

IMAGE OF TABLE

Dna – muscle – no shedding - months For adenovirus, shed in serum, saliva and urine, but only last days AAV – muscle – serum saliva urine – weeks Retrovirus – iv blood – semen (probably through prostate) – weeks

Vector: -    protein – no, requires biopsy -    dna, rna – yes, blood, urine -    chemicals – no, requires biopsy -    antibody response – yes, blood

clearance of free dna IMAGE OF GRAPHS

Even if inject into muscle and leaks into circulation, no way of finding. -    goes to liver and is broken down – perhaps find 10% of it in blood, after 30mins

dna detection?

Baterial is immunogenic

CpG dna: -    unmethylated CpG motifs are abundant in bacterial DNA -    the frequency of t CpG motif is supporess and highly methylated in mammalian DNA

detection?

Transgene -    protein o    human original, yes, elevated blood, urine o    new modified, yes if in blood, urine o    human modified, yes if in blood urine -    effect – yes, if in blood, urine

use effect as most promising

specific detection?

IMAGE

Isoelectric patterns of epo

REF: Lasne F et al Mol Ther 2004, 10:409-10 -    can see difference in number of glucose; same gene, same protein looks different from muscle or kidney -    possible fror detection

detection?

Specific – every potential drug needsa  specific sampling and analysis method – also detect other doping General – profiling allows t determination of (major) changes in gene expresion pattens by: gene array or proteomics

Genetic interventions IMAGE

Serum Protein Pattern diagnostics IMAGE

DETECT MAJOR CHANGE

Proteomics IMAGE

Establshes normalised picture of sports people on proteomic level, then look for major changes

Detection by proteomics

May be indication of gene doping – ME: WHAT else might it be

Post translation modifs

Mann and Jensen, Nature Biotech, 21, 255 (2005)

Gene expression profiles

IMAGE

Alreay used for cancer patients -    sample from tumour, isolate its rna, then matched on a chip, comparative analysis from arrays -    in sport, chip would convey change, 25,000 patterns on chip

Gene Array

IMAGE OF CHIP

Discussion -    gene doping vectors will be undetectable -    proteomics and gene expression profiling are powerful generally applicable methods and will be part of diagnosis and therapy in t future -    requires fresh tissue, urine or blood sample of good (RNA or protein) quality -    logistic (handlig, storage) -    global change in sampling handling is needed

Questions and Answers

A: once gene is active, no way of shutting it down.

Chair: Problem, because need 100% proof to commit someone

A review of current gene transfger models relevant to athletic performance

Haematological system and red cells in particular O. Cohen-Hagenauer

Launched European Society of Gene Therapy

Mainly deal with EPO

What matters, detection of EPO or that carry more level of EPO than rules permit? -    v costful

do you want to detect exogenous and transgeneand rEPO, or have world athlete not go beyond a certain threshold

Epo gene transfer -    can easily be monitored in vivo (hematocrit) – as hematocrit will just increase -    not supposed to induce an immune reaction -    therapeutic indications: epo sensitive anemias, eg chronic renal failure

epo gene transfer 1.    state of t art of vector systems 2.    regulatable expression – pharmacological control 3.    adverse effects – alluded to by haisma 4.    detection of abuse and gene doping

state of art of vector stys

state of art of vector systs 1.    dna electroctransfer of plasmid dna in rate muscle- just need needle, introduce gene in muscle, then electric field and dna will stay in. 2.    polymer encapsulation of xenogrenic or allogenicc fibroblasts or myoblsasts engineered to secrete epo 3.    sub-cutaneous implantation of microdermis biopump 4.    IM injection of epo-recombinnt AAV

IMAGES

AAV-mediated epo gene transfer 1.    long term expression (over 6 yrs) 2.    fatal polycythemia (excessive levels) 3.    regulatory system reqd – pharmacological control by an orally administered drug 4.    adverse event: auto-immune anemia 5.    detection of abuse and gene-doping

regulatable expressoin (3)

companies now investing into this sector

Questions and Answers

Coffee

Gene doping and the regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy Lee Sweeney

Skeletal muscle

Gene delivery into muscle -    primary targets are post-mitotic (non-dividing) nuclei of mature muscle fibers -    gene delivery vectors o    naked (plasmid) o    virus •    aav serotypes 6 and 8 are most efficient •    capsule modified lentiviruses o    non-viral dna conjugates o    adult stem cells •    muscle and bone marrow derived

adeno-assoviated virus mediateed gene transfer -    readily infects skel musc -    accommodates <4.7kb synthetic gene -    delayed onset of expression (Biut self compleent and high titrs decreates) -    no viral gene expressio -    no immune response in mice /capsid immune response in larger animals -    no integration (?) into post-mitotic nuclei – better for FDA safety -    long duration of xpression (likel years to decades) – but depends on usage, since only hitting postmitotic. Eg. Normal sedentary mouse loses no expression, but if hypertrophy, then lose in matter of months o    in monkeys that are not exercising, expression remains

efficiency of aav gene transfer -    50-95% of fibers show expression of reporter gene (LacZ) delivered by AAV1 -    transduction of -200% of all muscle in mouse possible w high levels -    looks possible for dogs now.

So, enhancement?....

potential appliocs for sskel musc -    primary musc diseases, duchenne beckeer, muscl dyst -    loss of muscle function during aging -    secration of therpaeutic proteins into t blood (factor 9 for haemophilia)

loss of muscle function during aging (sarcopenia) -    progressive loss of muscle mass and force beginning in fourth decade of life -    slowed, but not prevented by exerccise -    negatively impats health and quality of life -    occurs in all mammals -    may be due to progressive failure of skel musc to repair damage (decline in regenerative capacity) o    prob with ageing when satellite cell fusion doesn’t occur as well

Muscle Growth and regeneration. -    Various growth factors, HGF (hamatocrit) -    IGF-1 one of key factors – imp property (most inhibit maturation of muscle cells, so if over express, would inhibit muscile) but igf-1 drives proliferation, then XXXX

IGF-1 -    drieves protein synth -    reduces protein degred -    stimulates sat cell different

GH-IGF-1 axis - local synthesis decreases with ageing

Will inc IGFF-1 expression im muscl promote growth and refgernation pathways?

IGF-1 expression targetd to muscle -    utilize aav to achieve efficient skel musc delivery -    utilize musc specific promoter (MLC1/3) to limit expression to skel -    igf-1 over exzpresiosn should promote growh -    injected legs did not have age related loss -    also stopped loss of power

hyp -    igf1 overexpres should promote musc growth ad repair leading to t following outcomes

IGF-1

Conclusions – -    igf1 ocer express prevents age-relationship atrophy and loss of skel musc function -    skel musc regen i\

20% or more depending

prevented fibrosis due to severe injury

would it lead to enhanceemnt for athletes? If combined w trainig?

IMAGES

Igf-1 effect local- -    avoids harmful side effects, since blood levels of igf-1 not eleveanted -    decteion difi or impossible without biopsy, unless surrogate markers. -    But difficult to seee surrogate

Could systematic delivery of any ageny provide a similar effect to that achieved w local prodn of igf-1?

-    a TF-beta family membner, myostain antagonise igf-1 action, limiting skeltal musc growht. With igf-1 trying to create a balance. So knock down myostat to create effect on igf-1 -    possible cardiac toxicity -    relatively speciic to skeletal musc -    decreases fat -    loss or inhjib or myostat inc musc mass -    wyeth is in phase 2 clin trials w anti-myosttin antibodies for multiple types of muscle dystrophy – scarey note: all have dlated cardiomyopathy – could exacerbate cardiac condition, but speculative at this stage. Beginning to see effects. In obse patient, marked decrease in fat

Muscle growth and regen -    would inhibit prolif of sat cells, igf inrceases

myostatin inhib could allow systemic delivery -    antimyostat antibody injections into t blood of mice result in muscle hypertrophy -    viral delivery to liver or peripheral skel musc could generate screaion of anti-myostatin inhib in blood o    could look in blood for trace -    should result in inc growth and repair -    not clear if harmful side effects. Not clear would prov all benefits of igf-1 especially during senesence

gene doping could be detected by screening

myostatin KO Mouse -    wild type v myostatin null -    in any athlete, would not want total knock out

belgian bull

young child -    parents, mother is competitive athlete

conclusion -    gene transfer could be used for skel musc

nuber of properties could be changed -    strength, but repair, better muscle mass, strength and speed, maintainence of mass and strangth during disue, inc endurance

is genetic enhancement going to be a reality? -    inevitable -    banned on safety and fairness o    but safety sufficient -    if used in widespread for preventing aging, then harder to ban in athletic population. Especially when earlier better for intervention. -    Genetic profiling of athletes ‘ raise issues of genetic ‘fairness’ -  If someone has genetically decreawed myostatin, then is also unfair

Where are we now? -    can do this today o    naked dna o    direct injection o    vasula injection o    regulated gene expression

acknowledgement -    elizaeth barton, linda morris, rosenthal, farrar

Questions and Answers

Question: these are small animals. But how many injections for thigh muscle of human?

A: we are moving away from injection, rather vascular delivery. But problem is immune response in vector

Geoff Goldspink

Animal gene transfer model Interested in musc regulation

Looking at XXX, derived from IGF-1

IMAGES

Biol actions of gh/igf1

Mgf seems to cause sat cells to inc in no –then goes away

Igf1 also involved, but later in process

Damage

Real outcome is muscle force

With knockout myostatin not strong – lacking in functionality

35% inc in mujscle strength within 3 weeks

already company on internet creating mgf – Phoenix pharmaceuticals

ME: how did you find this?

Splicing can be induced by siRNA

Prediction

IMAGE

Put

Detection -    rapid screen mas spec

confirmatory tests -    antibody methods and o -    cell signalling using differeential gene expression

Questions and Answers

Tom: difference of view about what happens to myostatin knockout. Does it give strenght or not?

A: JHU argue that 17% increase in Arnold Schwarzenegger mice. Not a good balance in extra weight.

Lee: agree, if knockout altogether then not much strength .

Odile: but mujst increase other body parts

Lee: bones do compensate, do get larger. But not looked at tendons. But would assume they would hypertrophy as well

Geoff: myostatin KO; if keep putting into req state, can activtate w mgf, but if keep knocking out myostatin, energy pool diminishes over time. Athletes might use on short term, .

Lee: child born with KO liely to have problems, but mother doesn’t.

Question: shown that athletes using steroids get inc in sat cells, so can detect by muscle biopsy.

Geoff: butler brown in paris when taking biopsy from steroid using athletes, telelle length – life of sat cells – diminished – whereaas we might live to 180 efore run out of sat cells, athletes and exessive exercise might run out

Mitochondrian power plants: target for performance enhancing gene therapy Doug Wallace

Mit genome -    1500 chromosomes, 37mtdna genes -    all key energy genes

african

expressed through oocyte

males do not contribute

life = structure + energy

Schriner s et al 2006, science, 308, 5730, 11… -    increased lifespan by 20%, assoc w marked decrease in mtDNA

mtDNA, since maternally inherited, can only change over long period of time -    difference between everyone in room influences level

women started in africa about 200,000 years ago move to asian then to northern and then to americas

highly correlated w geographic origin – specifically latitude – because of temperature

mtDNA have specific point mutations that change coupling from ATP to decreasing work efficiency, hbut increaseing heat efficiency

changing of coupling efficiency

excess calories burned as heat

A nieme and k majamaa, 2005 Euro j hum gen 13 965-969 - mt dna genotypes correlates w finnish elite endurance versus sprinter athletes - functional difference between type one or two nucleotides

can radically change performance

possible that might be strand invasion of nucleiotide -    if switch from tightly to loosely coupled, would introduce muation, change 1 polymorphic base, inrcease performance 5-10%

Questions and Answers

Question: what is importance of mt ….?

A:

PPAR and the creation of the Marathon Mouse Ronald M. Evans, Salk Institute

What are they? -    peroxisome proliferator-activator receptors, comprise set of three related nuclear hormone receptors, that control broad aspects of lipid metabolism -    expresed in different tissues and are naturally activated

Fat storage and burning -    determined by relative levels of ppars,

revving up metabolism -    synthetic ligand GW1516

created marathon mouse (ppar)

transgenic mouse -    now expresses ppar-delta

muscling in on endurance -    will also treat wildtype (ie. Normal) littermates w orally active PPARd specific rdug

red muscle increased transgenic mice -    pink – glycolytpic fast twitch type ii -    - suggest switch to type 1 myosin rich fibres (slow twitch) -    from carbo burning to fat burning

A – better B – worse C – same

?

treadmill challenge

improved exercise performance in transgenic mice -    80% more time and distance capacity what about ppard null mice? -    Total running time only 20min, compared to wildtype of over 1hr and transgenic of more than 2hrs

Under study – does GW1516 enhance performance in mice?

Future – magic pill?

Clinical -    muscle wasting -    weight loss mec related to inc oxidative meabolism

opp for abuse -    inquiries from athletes, coaches, a horse trainer

conclusions -    ppar-delta directed metabolic changes produces a mouse w a long distance running phenotype -    possible to alter single component of compplex system –ie muscle fiber en burning ) to enttrain t rest of physiologic network -    genetically produced ‘delta’ muscle fibers confer high performance even in absence of exercise (training) -    exercise physiology can be predictively manipulated -    ppar-delter receptor

lead by Yongxu Wang – now running own lab at U Mass.

Gene Doping -  possible orthopedic applications Chris Evans, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Inflammation/arthiritis – phase I

And repair of: Bone Cartilage Ligament and tendon

Arthiritis is chronic, requiring long term gene expression, the other 3 are not – repair, then stop

Gene tansfer to the synovial fluid of joint

ex vivo and in vivo

Some success with ex-vivo

ex-vivo preclinical -    safe feasible in rabbits, rats, dogs, mice horses -    levels of expresion sufficient to inhiit animal models of RA

use retrovirus

phase 1 study in knuckle joint w rhumatoid arthiritis

put into joints that were due for removal

PAHSE I RA STUDY conclusion  (N=2) -    gene transfer to human joints is safe and feaible -    intra-articular gene expresion occurs -    patients accept procedure well -    reported relief, but not fully documented -    phase II studies merited    , BUT which vector

not progressed due to lack of funding. Big pharma wont touch it, small biotech don’t have enough money, millions just to treat small number f patients, but made progress by going around with it.

REF: Evans et al PNAS 102 8698-8706,2005

Targetted genetics company in seattle study.

Also in dusseldorf on modifications to determine clinical response. First year patients respnonded dramatically.

Horses Colorado state uni collab Experimental study in horse wrist joint, experimental model. Remove cartilage and inntroduce chip, measure effects of XX.

Induced disease at day 0, introduced vector after 2 weeks, disease under way, therapeutc not prophlyactivc, at end of experiment untreated joint shows erosion of articular cartilage

Absent from horse who recent therapy

Now bone

Direct injection of adenovirus – BMP-2

V responsive to gene transfer

Do this by making hole in animal’s bone and intro virus (BMP-2)

Rate undergo surgery, where femur exposed and external XX attached 5mm defect in femur would not heal if now use adenovirus and inject 40micro ltirs

after 8 weeks,good healing

Wolf’s law – how bone responds to load

After pins removed normal mineral content returns

Effectively repairing bone that would otherwise not occur

Concluding that we can do this

Cartilage

No intrinsic ability to heal

If partial injury to articular cartilage will not repair

If goes through to bone bone marrow defect

Trying to take adv of fact

Use with rabbit

ligament and tendon -    healing initiated by forming of blood clot -    gene transfer to healing ligament

see if enhance healing

gel-mediated gene transfer -    ad GFP placed into migration model gel -    1 week -    after 3 seeks more cells transduced

Presnet status

Indication – status – relevance to doping Inflam/arthiritus – phase1 clinical – high Bone – advanced preclin - ? Cartilage – preclin - ? Tendon/ligament – experimental – high tendon-muscle

If uses it when injured, then goes back to track, is horse doping?

Overlap between legit medical use – do have arthiritis – but overlaps with doping, since reason for arthiritis is due to over-traiing, so we increae their ability to train

Questions and Answers

Arne: Different between doping and treatment is already in use as TUE. Sports peple should be able to benefit. Problem is when it may go beyond.

Monday

Chair: Friedmann Standard in medical doping involves looking for assays

Don’t worry about looking for epo if you are interested in finding it

Look for local effects Systemic Homeostatic

Need un-biased global assays Changes in gene expression patterns in distal non-target tissues

WADA Perspectives on Gene Doping in Sport Olivier Rabin

Anti-doping analyses started in 60s based on detection of drugs in urine (stimulants and anabolic steroids) Progressive incorporation of -    immunassays: hcG (1987); LH (1997); hGh (2004) -    electrophoresis/focusing: EPO (2000); HBOCs (2004) – human blood oxygen carriers -    flow cytometry: blood transfusions in 2004 trend evolving from pure chemical analysis to incorporate more biochemistry and biology

evolution of rules -    from imperative need to detect and characterize t doping substance(s) in athlete’s biol specimen -    to -    possibiilty to use markers of abuse of substances to report doping -    as long as scientifically validated (concept and method)

markers approach already in final development phase for hGh detection: -    IGF-1 (liver) -    P-III-P (bone) Abnormal markers variation are used to qualify doping Hwr, almost 10 yrs of research and more than $4m

Fundamental concept

Abuse: substance – extra gene -    non physiological modification (imbalance) – change in homeostasis -    detection: where to look? o    Genomic o    Transcriptomic o    Proteomic o    Meabonomic

What to look for? -    signatures of changes unique to doping classes of substances

cannot say one substance equals one specific signature, but can make claims about relationships

limits in -    interpretation of gene modifications -    protein and peptide knowledge -    interpretation of metabolic changes

some gene regulations not fully understood

where to look? -    accessible cells or biol fluids w minimal invasiveness (urine? Blood cell lines, buccal cells; ) -    imaging (changes, markers, radiolabeled tracers)

challenges faced -    identification of right target: where, what how, interpret? -    Accessibility to measurable modifications (invasiveness, time window, ethical methods) -    Eliminate other explanations than doping (gender, age, diseases, enviro, ethnicity) -    Development of specific tools for anti-doping -    Extremely sophisticated constructs w fine modulation already in animal models -    Approaches may well work for gene doping or some substances, but what about cell therapy, in partic autoloous cell transplants – eg. Tendon strengthening in horses – extremely difficult to monitor. Looking for same cells in same organ. Already in application -    Costs. o    Money we can invest has limits. o    Also limit of cost we can ask for analysis. -    Layman accessible! – particularly lawyers.

Hope -    epo study in monkey showed genetically transferred epo still detectable o    not endog -    microarrays and SAGE appear to reveal target genes or mRNA. Proteins are promising. Metabonomics will grow. -    Combination of discriminant factors o    Projects ongoing on physiological markers that can be followed by biochem o    Have longitudinal XXX of athletes and detect unusual variations o    Doubt in future that can test every athlete for gene doping. Must start

Pragmatism -    science is likely to deeliver the antidote. When and how? -    Resources can be v demanding on anti-doping and beyond capability. Need to partner. -    Anti-doping market is limited. -    Partner with academic or private org -    Hope for some large scope methods, not too narrow in application -    Even if gene doping applied, limited chance of success, delay in significance impact in sport, though success will come…

DHEA is an anabolic steroid like testosterone and THG: Global gene expression analysis F Labrie

Use of microarrays applied to DHEA (hormone mutant)

Thg includes a genomic signature typical of a potent anabolic steroid J of Endocrinology 2005, 184, 427-33 Labrie, …. Claude Labrie

What is DHEA? -    precursor of all androgens -    from adrenal or food supplement (will argue against food supp) -    dhydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) -    leads to DHT dihydrotestosterone

The anabolic steroid control Act of 2004 has amended the US controlled substant act to include androstenedione, but it excluded DHEA.

‘ther term anabolic steroid means any drug or hormonal substance chem or pharm relationship to testost (other than estrogenes, progestins, cortico…’

JAMA 280, 1565-1566, 1998 -    qual control of DHEA dietary supplement products

HFL Jane Roberts

Difficulties, always new pharma drugs

Current methods cannot detect gene therapy

But if devevlop, perhaps could apply to other things, proteins/peptides, etc

Gene therapy to gene doping -    non-therapeutic use of genes, genet elements, and/or cells that have capacity to enhance -    muscular, anaemia, pain relief

alternative testing strategy -    surrogate marker approach (biomarker)

cell tissue, organ, organism -    complete ensable of biomolecules -    reflects influecnes of t enviro introduce exogenous substance

biomarkers -    transcripts -    proteins -    metabolites

transcriptomics vs proteomics

transcrcipts (mRNA) -    cellular material o    white blood cells o    urine epithelial cells -    differential gene expression -    complementary to proteomics

proteins -    serum/plasma -    secreted proteins -    includes PTM -    simpler assay -    sample stability?

Surrogate marker approach

Screening approaches

1.    pattern recog (uncharac markers) a.    transcriptomics i.    microarrays ii.    PCA, PC-DA b.    Proteomics i.    Gels, mass spectra ii.    ANNs (WADA Grant) – artif neural networks

2.    biomarkers assays (charac markers) a.    transcriptomics, proteomics b.    characterise proteins c.    development panel assays (multiplexing)

1.    pattern recog

sample prep is key- proteins in serum

Questions and Answers

Question: 4% cvould make world performance difference. Can array technology detect sorts of changes to give improvements of performance. Also legal issues – if athlete tested with array, about 36% of affeymetrix, not confident.

A: at proof of principle stage. Relies on probability

Proteomics J Yates, The Scripps Research Institute

Used for biol discovery

Ideas have been to apply technology to understand how proteins come together

Achieve total protein charcaterisation

Driven by mass spec

Single protein vs shotgun proteomics

Quantification

Global method: Would not stand up in court of law

Questions and Answers

Question: mentioned 20-30% SD, how about if shipped around world?

A: 20-30 is within sample.

Question: what preventive measures to keep stable.

Question; had possible to look at disease or treatment?

A: if biomarker, than one that shows dramatic. PSA doesn’t show much variation across sick and normal.

Question: Haima – not easy to detect in mass spec because some proetins don’t fly very well

A: at peptide level are problems

Proteomics as a tool to tdetect gene doping: intro to protein profiling C C King, San Diego, UoCalif, dept of pediatrics

How can embryonic SCs be used for …

Proteome complete set of proteins in a defined cell type, their relative quantitiates…

Outline -    2D electrophoresis: analysis and pitfalls -    establishing positional databases of proteins for analywsis -    frcaction -    applics for wada

2D gel electrophoresis -    few do this, since pattern recog alone does not give much diagnostic information -    but does offer possible to analyse specific proteins

coffee

Research Report on studies Geoff Goldspink

Exercise -    knee extensor weightlifting exercise -    3 sessions per week

using muscle biopsy

with elderley people

if give growth hormone and then exercise, leads to substantial inc in MGF -    related to inc in cross-sectional area of muscle fibres -    these old people are hormone deficient (drop by 2/3 from teenage to 70+)

relationship between MGF and muscle

studied young people next -    n16 -    give growth hormone, then 4 week washout, then placebo -    take biopsies before and at wk2 and wk8 with blood samples -    untrained indviduals

repeated with trained athletes -    blood levs went up considerably

been taking muscle cells in culture and putting serum on them

use muscle cells in culture

IGF-1 gene transfer

3 Different types of IGF-1 in muscle tissue

actually 6 types (2 classes of 3)

with placebo, inc in class 2 with Gh wen down

with MGF of Class 2,

can now purchase human muscle cells

with GH, get inc in Class II with MGF, mainly class 2

Class II MGF trascripts in cells treated w Human Serum Samples -    clear distinction

Present project with NHFL Newmarket and Nott Trent Uni -    human and murine serium samples for o    biosensor o    other markers o    proteomics – mass spec/neural network

Study 2 Trained Subjects Experimental protocol -    n15 -    from uni exercise science dept -    in training -    randomised o    GH + training o    or Placebo + training,

concern that they might be disqualified from sport

Currently collab

1.    mice receiveing hgh delivered using a mini osmotic pump

mass spec can distinguish

detection -    rapid screening using mass spec -    confirmatroy w o    antibody o    cell signalling using differential gene expression

present and future challenges in detecting enhacneing substances -    synthetic/recombinant analogues -    generic sbstances -    new methods of admin -    gene doping

providing we have good methods, it’s almost immaterial whether gene doping or not

Transcriptional and proteomic effects of IGF-1 Ted Friedmann

Does igf-1 casue sig molecular changes useful for detecion? -    changes? Basis for detection?

Model systems – in vitro and in vivo -    initial studies in in-bred mice – avoid problem of indivd variability, polymorphisms -    cultured murine and human muscle cells o    C2C12 o    Primary human muscle cell -    In vivo, IGF-treated mice o    Muscle, blood, urine, saliva, other organs

Exptl design – short term

I. transcriptional response to IGF-1 - microarray, affymetrix

candidate of genes that can be used to detct

approach to screening for IGF-1 -    identify genes most markedly regulated by IGF-1

Application of microarray technology for the detection of changes in gene expression after doping w recombinant human growth hormone Rene Stempfer…. Christa Nohammer

Goal: development of target dna microarray to identify specific change sin blood cell gene expression related to t admin of hgh

Present project -    feasibility study o    in vitro – different blood cells o    in vitro -  peripheral blood mononuclear cells

microarray procedure

Application of cellular chemistry and proetomic approaches to t detection of gene doping Jane roberts

Objectives -    identify and validate protein expression patterns (fingerprints) o    GH IGF-1 protein gene construct o    Mouse model o    Applic to humans y2-3

Yr1 -    show that genetic manipulation results in change in genetic fingerprint -    can detect w pattern recog

Doping analysis relevant for potential application to gene doping detection James Segura, Biomedical Research Park, PRBB, Barcelona

Oxymoron -    a thetorical figure in which an epigrammatic effect is created by t conjunction of incongrous or contradictory terms -    eg. Not-for-profit drugs; research and physician

detection of doping substacnes -    problem w substances identical to t endogenous ones (endogenous-like substances) is it possible to detect non-natural traits in natural substances?

Gene doping makes this problem harder

Peptide hormones

Indirect markers -    physiological effects -    popn studies: probability

direct markers -    subtle chemical difference between t admin drug and t natural hhormne produced by t b -    difficult to find direct markers

indirect dtection of GH

liver metabolism -    igf-1, igfbp-2 and 3, als

bone metab -    osteocalcine, p-III-p ; picp; ictp

gene expression of gh isoforms

need further verificaiton that change derives from gene therapy and not something else -    use non invasive imaging that shows expression in an unexpected tissue o    IMAGENE

A long way to go before detection

Potential for non-invasive imaging in anti-doping efforts Kurt Zinn

Outline -    background -    imaging -    potential -    points for consideratoin

potential imaging targets -    direct o    transferred genee o    products from gene -    indirect o    change in metab due to chronic exposure to transferred gene products o    changes in anatomy due to chronic exposure to transferredgene products o    inflamm arising from gene transfer or expresed gene product o    reporters of pathway activation

imaging modalities -    radioactive-based -    gamma-ray imaging -    posittron empission tomography -    xray computer tomography -    magnetic resonance imagine -    light-based imaging -    ultrasonography

imaging that maybe immediately applicable to gene doping

Roussel et al, Fig1, J app physio, 94, 1145-1152, 2003

Richardson et al Biochem Soc Trans, 30, 2002 232-237

Potential methods -    direct o    imaging gene transfer agent o    imaging protein gene product o    eg

meausrement of firefly gene for light if mouse produces light, then gene is being expressed

Imaging tc-99m-ad-luciferase

Particle goes to liver

Shows light ommision from liver of mouse

Questions and Answers

Lunch

Session 4

Tom murray

Screening a worry

Matt

T culture of sport Natural talent and effort Natural variation of talent is intrinsic to sport – if your body doesn’t fit, then do something else

New types of sport have developed that appreciate natural talents – where certain body types suit

Equal opportunities -    not part of culture of sport

cannot complain that

does not imply that sport activity is result of genetic lottery -    there is no genetic lottery, but evolution of natural talent combined with effort

fair chance – if different heights where height is relevant, then is unfair – so we divide in groups -    age differences, sex

limits of accessibility on fair innings argument

need sufficient number of competitors to make it worthwhile

natural variation –s mostly self-regulation

people w extreme gene mutations not become elite athletes

limits of genetic screening

gene doping for improvement talent and level of effort -    opening for fair innings – set up games where GM athletes complete, but should we?

The phenotype routlette -    natural phenotype is t result of a delicate balance in order to master o    genetic program o    epigenetic instabilities o    biological chance o    environmental challenges

for safety reasons -    major reason against -    keepin athletes healthy is difficult enough at such extremes of performance. With gene doping more complicated -    delivery, expression and safety -    protect athletes from their own winner instincts -    protect next generation from manipulating their health -    health expenss for sports moveement will likely sky rocket

if we assume safety? -    natural mutations have many advantages appreciated and accepted -    some can be screened for -    hwe, where draw line, w gene doping, one has to screeen for many genetic variants in order to meet t same requirement

snowballing inflation -

rules of fair play -    sport activities presume a pre-competition agreement about rules -    winning is essnetial but so is also fair play

fairness as equal opp not part of sport

as fair share of innings – part of sport with rough measures

as fair play – intrinsic

protecting privacy -    can we protect, with testing -    it can, if understand what privacy is all about -    often willing to give up privacy in certain conditions o    enjoying sport activities is one of those conditions

gene testing – includeed in rules of fair play -    accepted part of different practices -    research, medical treatment, sport activities -    need to regulate. How reliable? Who has access? How handle safely

yes to gene technology -    no to gene doping is consistent w a yes to medical treamtnet

aging of muscles problem – fear that cannot set limits -    distinc between gene transfer in care of patient, always balancing – benefits v risk -    patients are closely mointored to correct for unforeseen -    v different thing to do this on healthy people, where not monitoring closely

these questions not new, many drugs that used on old people that we would not use on younger

eg. Morphine good for people at end state, does not mean that give to anyone in pain

ethics and t challenge of t potential use of genetic technology in sport. Angela Schneider

Summary of effort, talent and fair play -    sport is rule governed -    action against rule is cheating -    should thre be a rule against – yes -    hwr, important practical and ethical problems

Winning the genetic lottery -    is it fair to compensate for those who have lost t genetic lottery from a sport perspective but still wish to compete in elite sport by enhazncing -    Hannson ‘why not allow gene doping’

Need to answer some important concepts

Contested distinctions -    natural and unnatural (artif) -    point of sport is to measure difference o    we have allow naturally differences to affect outcomes o    hwe, we wil not allow t potentially fairere gnetic equalization that would occur through enhancement. Do we have good grounds?

Ethical foundation -    preventing avoidable harm -    paternalism -    performance enhancement -    vision of sport and how gene doping fits within this context -    sport for humans not humans fro sport -    contested

do not design humans for sport

ME: but we do

Sport exhibits values -    leadership must choose which values -    eg. Equity of access; implications of genet therapy for those who currently live with disease or disability; specific sport oriented issues

Laser eye surgery -    language is intructive – if describe as removing normal variation, status as enhancement clear. But if removing abnormalities, more like correction

LASIK -    used in some sports. Should it be? -    Enhances

Comparison w rules against doping -    one point of rules is to limit risk -    risk of laser eye, 5-10%, possible risk -    how much risk is too much? -    Not clear why sport should accept any degre of risk for beyond performance – ie enhancement -    Most relevant value is definition of health

Consistency and credibility of rules In anti-doping have analogous substances

Principle at stake

Distinction between enhancement and repair -    restorative and addtive distinction (fost)

repair is unprobc

incidental improvement -    Tommy John elbow injjury – generalyl accepted

Surgery in absense of defect is enhancement

But Tiger Woods – laser eye

Laser correction public use now

Not like cheating in way that steroid use is

Practice doesn’t cause sufficient harm But this sets bar high

Things that are acceptable elsewhere, not aceptable elsewhere

What do with grey zones? -    arbitrary, but

with strict liability

privacy issues and access to genetic information -    genetic information especially private -    indicative of identities in special way -    puzzle – genetic make up not indicative

social question -    maintaining privacy of personal genetic information  vs potential role of sport community becoming wedge used to derive greater geneal

wituhout moral support, sport will not be able to preserve humanizing influecnce s if sport recognises and re

genetic modification and improving humans -    enhancement

sport conflronst problems

if sport faces problems

who decides?

Sport is leading by saying we will regulate

Ethics, enhancement and sport Tom Murray

Meaning of soprt as a human activity: why the world loves the olympic games

Excellence in sport as expression of -    natural talents -    virtuous perfection of those talents

Aristotle – eudamonia -    full good natual ilfe

there are unvirtuous ways of getting these

objections to doping control in sport -    claim of incoherency -    line drawing problem -    resistance Is futile -    appeal to individual liberty -    romantic/promethean view

ME: but this ignores game theory. It’s not about the rules. It’s about the intended test.

incoherency claim -    no cnpcetual ethical or practical distinction among different means of enhancement sport performance o    the marathoner’s shoes

response -    hypothetical

Line Drawing problem -    all possible lines are arbitary -    aribtrariness is fatal flaw

conflates two meaning of arbitrary -    as unprincipled, indefensible -    as reasonable response when o    drawing SOME line is defensible o    placing line IN THIS PLACE likewise

athletic virtues – fast.

Why 5 players Why not 50 players, look like rugby -    ME: not really. Dimensions of playing field,

But this would not have any of the characteristics of bball

Why draw in this place? -    why not 6 in team? Or 4? No 1 on 1

would not have a game of bball

ME: tom is not distinguishing different kinds of rules – he is talking about constitute rules, not regulative rules

Resistance is Futile -    not a first-order ethical claim -    primarily two empirical predictions o    control will be impossible o    bad conseques ensue -    control is never perfect -    depends upon o    public consensus o    effetive enforcement

ME: he is now switching to regulative rules

ME: breaking some rules is not bad in intelf

there are silly rules – prohibition in us

So must have a public consensus in support of rules

In sport, if ban certain things but do not enfocre

Argument from Individual Liberty

Presumption in favour of liberty Paternalism difficult to defend w adult athletes Hasting Center project -    coercive impact of drugs in sport: the unlevel field

doping control done well provides level playing field

argument from liberty fails to

romantic/promethean view -    humans as self-creators -    understand cultural and philosophical context and implications -    valorizes unfettered will and self-manipulation -    relation to human flourishing? -    Case of anorexia o    ‘anorexia is t cultivation of a specific image as an image – it is purely artficial rceation and that is why it is so admired. Will alone produces it and maintains against considerable odds’ noelle casky, 2003, 129

Triump of Performance Principle -    max performance by any means at any cost -    power lifting: drug free and? -    Unavoidable conseq of refusing to set limits o    Greatly increased risk    rules governing a practice not equal indefensible parternalism -    Threat to spirit of sport

No longer throw people to lions

ME: so the level of risk in sports is just right?

Ethics of enhancement in context -    non-trembling neurosurgeon -    point of practice: spirit of sport -    not t means per se, rather their relationship to t goals of t practice, values and human flourishing

imagine drug with no side effect

imagine drug diminishes hand tremour and neurosurgeons see benefit

let’s also assume that mperson you love most in world needs operation

2 surgeons, one says biomedical enhancement always ethically wrong, never use tremour reducing, and second says, I use it all the time

you would choose one w best results

first surgeon missed practice of surgery

point of sport is natural excellence

point of surgery is to make well

different kinds of human activity calls for different kinds of rules -    partic to circum of relevance

not bad to prevent muscle wasting , but still suspect as use in sport

because of goals and values of practice

challenge of genetic enhancement in sport

what do we value in sport? -    natural talents -    virtuous perfection of talents

what do we disvlaue -    distortion of relationship between natural talent, virtue

what makes a talent natural?

Complex phenotypes -    genome as ecosyst o    genes interact complexly w each other genes, w external environment -    genetic difference in general not rigidly determinative for human behaviour o    see behavioural genetics report at hastings center website

child who has been engineered prenatally, natural?

ME: ecosyst argument – just a complexity argument?

Differences in natural talents? -    as vicious inequalities to be redressed? 1.    Vonnegut’s ‘handicapper general’ •    Disable smart -    As expression of human of human variaton to be celebrated? -    Olympic movement opts for t latter? 1.    Alternative romantic/promtehan, triumph of performance principle

ME

Final session

Jacque Rogge

Test to check for drugs for neurosurgeon

Need clear rules for world of sport

Fairness – but is life fair?

Sport is arbitrary in some ways

Can this be accepted?

Is it fair that kenyan athlete born at 2000m of altitutde has special diet, runs 10km twice a day? Fair to compare with swedish athlete

Laser eye surgery, but would any physician accept to do that? Any ethical physician would refuse operation without pathology

Look at high-jumpers

Achilles tendon most fragile for fosbury

If in 10-15yrs, cell therapy to heal tendon and grow by 10% more and allow better training, forbid? – yes it should, but I need advice.

Paternalism -    we cannot have been told to decide for -    gov put strong warnings on sale of tobacco. But athletes do not know what is dangerous for their health.

Basis of beliefs

850million people practcising sport, 750million recreational

every recreational is competing with self

only 150million in sports contest

we believe that this pyramid provides great educational tool, for body and mind

sport taches social sskills- achieve more in a team, than alone

respct sport, respect society

sport integrates

sport brings health

sport shapes identity

we know life and soc is unfair, but social value of hierarchy – doping destroys ranking system

we believe that protect health, even if paternalism

believe in one example – that fight against doping is important for keeping explemar of sport

different between nature and nurture -    virtuous perfection is essence of sport -    everyone wants to reach limits – leaves sense of accomplishment -    important anser against existential fear that everyone has – who am i?

recruitment -    social aspect -    champion is admired -    not everyone born with talents, but way athlete behaves and lead life is important to protect. Genetic doping would destroy

doping rules are imperect

compensation theory -    compensate up to normal level, but then are cheating, but allowing less effort athlete to be compensated, then penalising the champion

my plea is please give us clear rules – must be crystal clear

enhancement not be allowed

where draw line must be done with ethicists and scientists

Stockholm Declaration Arne Ljungqvist

Composed of olivier, ted, and arne

Today, several human genetic diseaes can be succesffuly reated by gene transfer Gene transfer is still a very immature and it is still an exptl field of human medicine

Challenge?

Change serveal to  ‘a few’

Extensive and rigorous regulatory mechanisms need to ensure safety of research subjects and patients

Gene transfer procedures must -    follow code and principles of human exptn and clinical research -    be performed strictly in accord w local and national rules and regulations for gene transfer in clinical research

Comment: these are more general reseacrh

Tom: human beings?

Lee: clinical trials

Tom: clinical research aimed at dealing with human disease, but some of this will not be about disease. ‘Follow codes and principals governing research to human subjects’

Matt: follows nuremberg, etc

Tom: these are minimal conditions, we can elaborate

Lack of compliane w standards an rules of gene trasnfer procedures must be considered as medical malpractice and/or professional mis-conduct

Development appropriate sanction mechanism for illegal application of gene transfer in sport

Gary: who will develop?

Comment: since no legal, ma

Maybe unethical or illicit

Illegal implies court of law

Unethical and/or illegal

Promote public discussion issues on THE PROSPECT OF gene based enhancement and develop education progrms

Be developed

Comment: this implies it exists

Olivier: can argue this in animal models

Odiele: reservations, since education can be spreading

scientficic progress made through resarch projects supported by WADA and others suggest that new detecion and screening methods are likely to emerge in t near future, which will help to keep sport untainted by gene based doping methods

Cell doping? It is covered if we move entirely towards gene.

Delete ‘near’?

Lee: must emphasise need for research

Support research programs instituted by WADA and other anti-doping organizations

Comment: ‘should be supported’ at end remove support

academic and private research organizations to dedicate resources to further progress in gene doping research should be encouraged

Larry: deter, not just detect – progress to ‘deter’ gene doping

Gary:  government?

Academic, government and private research

Genetic and denomic charcaterisation of athletes to determine genetic traits is contrary to the principles of sport

Rogge: contradiction with screening

Odiele: when speak of genetic trait, must speak of interited trait

Dave: might be reasons to screen for genetic traits in medicine

Tom: say something about unwise nature, but not sure contrary to principles of sport. Not because against principle of sport, but because of potential harm

Lee: must specify athletic traits, not genetic

Ted: not determination of trait, but use of it to exclude. Ie. To determine eligibility

Peter Fricker: this research has been done. Issue here is about discrimination. Need to look at genes and risk of illness.

Tom: use of genetic information about putative athletic ability to discriminate against athlete, should be strongly discouraged.

Add to ‘select’ or discriminate

Peter: must allow ethical reseearch must proceed to validate role of genetic information

Enhance awareness of potentiall illicit use of gene transfer techniques in sport

Promote knowledge on medical and physical dangers associated with gene doping

Odiele: woiuld we like to put forward idea that there are dangers?

Olivier: dangers alone?

Odiele: why not ‘misuse of gene transfer’

Olivier: risks or dangers?

How about potential risks?

Olivier Rabin

ME: why not inter-governmental rules and regulations? As well as local and national

International Association for the Philosophy of Sport (2005, Czech Republic)

IAPS2005, Czech Republic Friday morning

Doping

Dehumanisation -    Schneider and butcher consider incomplete, since do not know what humanness is

Paper on philosophy of language

4. could a human being ever not be or be less human?

Miah -    “concluding what is ethical about what is ethical….what is valuable about being human….human dignity…autonomy….capacity for being persons…strong evaluations….’ -    Central claim about personhood – measure of individuals…personhood ….. humanness as personhood responds to Schneider and butcher that no …. .persons need not be humans (McNamee – OK, but this is not Mike’s idea. Tooley wrote about this and Singer )

Metaphysical conception of humanness is a mistake

Miah -    Warnock – personhood takes direct route

ME: but Warnock was engaged in various processes – a working legal document

What gives sport value?

For whom?

Which sport, what level, etc?

Dehumanise is dominant concept, rather than human

No need for metaphysical conception of humanness

Charles Travis

What is a greyhound?

Fathers method of developing sense of greyhoundnes is useless

Mother is better – point to different dogs and call them

ME: but what would the mother say?

If we can identify conception of contrast, creates apparent philosophical problem

Baker on Wittgenstein – we get in trouble when picture associated with concept is incompatible

Moral particularism

Account of humanness appears necessary

Need disappears

Approach from concrete use in language

ME: when you begin to ascribe rights and freedoms, you need a metaphysical definition that allows you to make distinctions

Contrasts are drawn in general way

Drawing a line -    in moral judgements creates misleading picture -    leads us to want to say that everything on one side is ok and on other is objectionable -    generalisation is misake

ME: but line drawing is not really used as moral judgment, but to enable a judicial (rule-based) system to function

Degrading v dehuman

Decomposed, demobilised, decapitated

De indicates a lack of something

ME: why are we talking about dehumanising?

The blood is human

Lack of feeling was inhuman – does not mean person not a human, more to do with lack of moral characteristics of human

We know what’s at stake

Schneider and Butcher use humanness rather than moral agency, this is a mistake

Use of language is more complicated than

Not simply GM or performance enhancing drugs that dehumanising, but also other entities

Dehumanise does not mean no longer human

Metaphysical used as basis for grounding moral judgements cannot work

ME: So humanness as personhood doesn’t help?

Bill: ‘a woman is less than a human, so I can do something to her that I would not do to a man’ often used to treat universal in principle vs universal in reach start with relevant similarities what it means to be human is certain relevant similarities

ME: but there are other considerations – rationing, for example, but not only. Dignity functions in a contested manner when dealing with PVS – where one has to assume interest (UK law substituted judgement)

Bill: Rawls: suffering – of course occasion sensitive

Jim: Do animals suffer? What is a supplement? Difference between sup and dope? How classify things on earth? Birds, fish, mammals. Difference between a definition and a clarification of a term. What Schneider and butcher get wrong is that their conceptual analysis is that they think necessary and sufficient conditions define humans – that last bit is wrong!

Leon: Do not need to go to specifics of a case

ME: how specific is a case? What constitutes a case?

ME: What if I am a giant?

Friday 1030-1200

Philosophy of Extreme Sports

Adventurous Changes: Rethinking sport in the age of the extreme Kevein Krein

Best – aesthetic sports – closer to extreme sport

Aesthetic sport and art difference is art = self expression, sport not

Booth – translate philosophy into movement Really?

Cannot represent such abstract ideas through surfing

Discussion:

Extreme correct term? -    death sport or high-risk?

ME: so is sport!

Concept of extreme diminishes with skill

Still a performance for others – but peers, not personal

Photography

The very act of being on the wave is the articulation of a philosophical or perhaps in the case of some sports an ideological premise, eg. Skateboarding and the urban (Dogtown).

Danger of relying on the athlete’s articulation of what they are.

The Intelligibility of Suits: Scott Kretchmar

Reply to Thompson, JPS

Thompson – utopia is conceptually incoherent, implodes because of own contradiction -    welll rid of it

suits is constrained utopia, but not coherent

Thompson -    in utopia, Suits says is no suffering, but in sport there is plenty

thompson’s concern about utopia

suits and play

suits agreed that ideal of existence revolves around those things the sake of which we do other things

suits accepts play as intrinsic, but interested in games

did not praise play over work

not like Huizinga

suits wanted to make a claim about games

utopia populated w activities like baseball and crosswords

game thesis, not play commitment that caught attention of skepticus

why only games?

Knowing what the game is

In utopia, Suits puts games on high normative pedestal -    effort and striving would no longer make sense

instrumentally free mode of living

games give us something to do when there is nothing to do (said the Grasshopper)

ant existence predicated on scarcity

for ants, often too much to do

grasshopper unimpressed w mandate of scarcity umoved my moral pressure of prudence

living life predicated on plenty, even if foolish

presents himself as future harbinger of….

For grasshopper, often too little to do

Suits: Game playing only remaining candidate for utopian occupation. Game playing makes utopia intelligible

Intrinsically valuable No further end Games meet this requirement Must have obstacles to overcome Game playing makes it possible

Argument fails because suits’ utopia is an ideal existence. Needs all intstrum activities save one do not exist

If one is living in bliss, who cares if there is nothing to do?

Cannot be a place where all needs have been met, though work meets a logical conclusion – human basic needs met But larger problem of boredom is left

Suis conclusion that there is nothing to do must be false

Problem w Suits ‘nothing to do’ He actually means, no probs to solve – work/natural probs

Having no probs to solve does not mean nothing to do

Countless things left to do – eg eating, listening to music, sitting in sun, etc

Suits does not answer question by Prudence and Skepticus – why free from work = games

Why liken to game playing rather than trumbone playing?

Suits has only shown us that nothing to do relating to problem solving, not that there is nothing to do

We are inherently problem solving creatures and he neglects this

Partial answers from anthrop -    contemporary human beings are product of millions of years of successful problem solving ancestors met obstacles

lesser problem solvers died off

good problem solvers populate t earth

Suits: many of us are in game denial!

Article 6yrs after grasshopper -    utopia need not be tiddley winks, but grandiose games Suits leaves us w questions about future.. -    utopia comprised as intrinsically satisfied games might be bleak or beautiful, but need to address

humans are made game ready

The Devoted Athlete: An Examination of Seriousness in Competitive Sport Peter Hager, SUNY

330-5pm Friday

Mark Hamilton

LASIK – shown to be beneficial for baseball Tommie John surgery – UCL 10% better for all baseball players -    when elective? – but wasit?

ME: why doesn’t  it happen?

Inevitable

ME: but contingent on physician position

ME: Why care? -    if medical standard, no issue – except diminished autonomy which we cannot possibly pursue

should it be banned?

ME: can it be banned? No, because first outside of sport too

Transsexuals -    Renee Richards – see reassignment surgery 1975 -    1976 US open denied access -    1977 US supreme court ruled in favour

USPGA on ladies prohibits -    Charlotte Wood, finished 3rd 1987 -    Led to ‘female at birth’ clause intro

3 options - let them (transhuman – Julien Huxley - surgical analogous to equipment changes

Anger Jeff Fry

Execessively high display of anger leads to aggressive play

ME: doesn’t anger/aggression win games?

Aristotlte: man angry at right things should be praised, if not angry, coward, etc – slavish

Robert Thurman

Coaching anger relevance? -    caring deeply? -    Justifiable – if injustice – eg cheating by officials -    Pressures coaches face

Anything in sport worth getting angry about?

Why coach?

What is appropriate display of anger?

Can debate value of anger

Donald Jones? – role-differentiated ethics -    take into account special circums

coaches cultivate passion

ME:: but is thi a flaw?

ME: compare w politician – should they get angry

Suits Doug McLaughlin

Elucidation on game playing for understanding utopian lure

3 aspects - utopia - lusory att as unifying aspect of game playing - dream and vision of grasshopper

purpose of grasshopper -    utopia -    theory of games

formulation of games not most important aspect

game v the good life

relationship between games and utopia

grasshopper -    life most worth living -    not exemplar of game playing

we find significance in problem solving -    utopia wout problems would not be a utopia

Thompson article -    does not recog move from play to game playing in suits

Fair is Fair, or is it? Bill Morgan

Both dopers and dopers claim they make the playing field level They are both wrong

Rawls -    justice as reciprocity

doping is a moral offence that affects fairness

WADA and USADA within moral rights to test, but recent efforts they have made are also unfair and morally problematic

Deep seated complex moral problem and looking for easy technical fix

Elliott Better than Well – double standard – we expect athletes not to take drugs, but not in everyday life

Drug rules are not constitutive – not athletically relevant

2 kinds of rule violation - offensive: break rule to gain adv - defensive: occur when v little compliance w rules. Break rules to protect oneself

not persuasive

2 problems

1.    protecting self-interest, no concern about fairness, main concern is not being taken adv of – not being a sucker 2.    everyone’s doing, so ok for me to do it

v difficult to know how many athletes are doping

from 5% to 95% but who knows?

Significant number who don’t dope

Cannot assume that all are, so looks like offensive rather than defensive rule violation

Idea that everyone’s doing it means overestimating no of people doing it, so am overestimating my reaction

Doping claim to level playing field does not work, so authorities have moral right to test

What about WADA and USADA? Fair?

Standard way is drug test -    objectve, impartial, at first glance

devil in detail

1.    even though tests are getting better, still easy to get around test. 2.    False positives as well as false negatives (Tyler Hamilton)

Only people who get caught are dumb or unlucky

Biowash – shampoo

Flush mouth solution

Urinator –

Whizzinator – prosthetic penis (ME: see article in endnote)

Analytic techniques largely failed

Crackdown by legal

Balco – coop w criminal courts

Michelle Collins – never tested positive disqualified for 8 years

Non-analytic attempts along with analytic

Gary Wadler – favourable article on WADA, they willl catch dopers and standardised rules across sports. New world order ‘commiteed to fair play and ethical values’

Not so!

Problems:

WADA has changed burden of proof -    to comfortable satisfaction

raises social justice issue

treating similar cases dissimilarly

violation of mutual reciprocity

ME: but they could not win – burden of proof was too high

Justification has been ‘righteous indignation’

American Arbitration has resisted, but not for much longer

Classic problem of fairness

Not a concern for moral integrity of sport

Problem 2:

Circumstantial criminal cases against dopers

Criminalisation of street drugs and doping -    difference is that former kill each other

dopers will rat each other out

end up with Hobbesian all against all

BALCO

ME: what is a designer drug? – a product that never made the market, but is in the journals

AAP

Three approaches to Pain in Sport – a critical review Sigmund Loland

Background

Phenomenon of pain -    significance in sport – ethical challenges -    ambiguous – epistemological crossroads

a critical review and comparison of 3 ideal-typical approaches

research strategies

European College of Sport Science (2005, Belgrade)

ECSS 2005, Belgrade, Serbia Post Race Rectal HGH

ACE, ACtN3, AMPDI

1 allele of ACE = endurance

D allele of ACE = Sprint

Some studies show assoc

1 acele of ACE overrepresented in SA Ironman - Collins et al Medicine Sci Sport Medicine

suggested this ACE gene other gene with close prox of ACE gene on chromosone 17q23 may encode for a protein directly involved w t athlete phenotype

Growth Hormone (GH1) gene -    17q 24 2 -    encodes for family of GH -    anterior pituity -    IGF-1

Is growth H involved?

GH, little or no beneficial effect on GH on health indivs -    but GH might phys role in carotic metab and enhance tissue repair post ex

ex induced GH secretion stimulates -    swet secretion -    heat XXX through sweat -    influ heat loss during ex

GH1 gene

155 subjects 104 post rectal 55 control subj – no ultra XXX blood sample and geoXXX

triathlete group significance older than control

significance dif in post-ran rectal temp for gh1 genotype

Conclusion -    GH1 not assoc w endurance performance -    Unlikely that any of t genes are aassoc w performance

But temp lower for TT athletes

Exchange Symposium, Fri 5pm

Chair: Emin Eren (TUR)

Sport, Medicine and Scie hist roots -    MEDICINE: fundamental o    Disease – injury o    Healing + prevention

Medicine is sci of diagnosis, treating, and preventing disease

Hist  backg -    priest – magic – physician -    men-nefer -    Met – Sunu – Metsunu = medicine

Medicine and Magic

Ancient Greek

From magic and religion to secular practice Need to understand physics Study of matter and energy -    metaphysics

science -    latin – scientic – knowledge of something -    scive – to know (disting) -    scindere – to cut/divide -    sci – systematic

Is medicine a sci discipline? -    clinical medicine yes -    medicine as ‘art’ of healing using sci method -    ‘doctor’ = teacher

3 pillers of medicine - Claudius Galen – father of sport medicine

Sport Medicine progs around Europe not UK

What is sports medicine -    therapeutic -    team doctor -    sports physician 1904 germany -    dept 1911 dresden -    congress 1912 -    uni course 1919 -    journal 1924 -    institute 1945 prague

scope of sport medicine -    sci, moral, legal, health issues -    enhance qual of life

sci and sport -    ancient

hist of sport sci -    rise of physiology links -    Pierre-Jean Cabani (1757-1808) -    AV Hill -    Edward Muybridge – motion photo -    Ergometry 1790

Sci in Coaching

Coaching – art of sci to better performance

Conclusion

Stimulants – human

Scope -    sport sci – pushing limits -    sport medicine – protecting within limits

brotherhood not rivalry

Pres 2

Fabi Pigouazi

Sport medicine – from biological to clinical

Founded FIMS 1928, 19 feb -    2nd Olympic winter games

IOC MC 1967

Essentials of sport medicine

Ex as essential

ME: ethics in sport medicine at the time?

Ex as component of health -    ex for prevention – treatment, education

specialists -    athlete, coach, team physician, physio – need good relationship

Future development -    sport performance will increase -    av life span will rise -    sport medicine widely used

ME: wat formal structures protect integrity of physican decision making?

ME: ECSS needs a session on science communication

Biol limit of life

115 yrs - goal of 3rd millennium is inc quant and qual of life

heed to change ‘value of soc’

WHO – health definition

Lifestyle changes

Principles of wellness

State of sm in Euro -    euro won 50% of medal sin Athens

Gene doping -    Problem: lack of control of gene expression

FIMS – 200,000 physicians

Vassilis Klissourus

Unifying Sport Medicine and Sport Science: Paradigm of Sport Genetics

Goals – sci – push limit -    medicine-protect

but ultimate goal of both is to optimise human performance

there is no division between sci and medicine challenges

1.    grasp interplay between genes and enviro 2.    bioethic problem of genetic enhancement

Physio Basis of Records -    athlete v non-athlete difference = former learned to close gap between phsych and physio -    drives closer to limits (AV Hill 1925)

Sport Performance Determinant

Phenotype variation -normal distrib - what is relative power of genes and enviro in development of phenotype

2 stages 1. measured genotype 2. unmeasured

JAP, 1971, 31: 338, 344 -    Klissourus twin study -    Max aerobic power -    Almost identifical for twin -    93% heritability -    all genes for VO2Max

Max aerobic for non and identifcal twins -    supp hyp that gen is important for VO2 max

Perth Genetic Analysis

Maes et al JAP, 28 1479, 1996 Genetic and Envirol Sources of Variation in Vo2peak in 105….

Twin research -heritability estimate - conclude genes dominate - for max aerobic power -for max aerobic cap

But phenotype not predetermined or unchangeable -    training changes -    genes not like switches

Reserch direction -    to what extent can modify phenotype? -    A genotype intention modified? -    How genetic is process I change? -    perXX and cognitive?

Klissourus, Interest J Sport Medicine, 2002 Genes and Olympic Performance -    interpret difference were not significance, except for personality (behav)

Behaviour Determines Performance

Identify specific genes -    got to find t many genes relationship to partic att state

Walfarth, et al Medicine Sci Sport Ex, Jan 2005 -    T uHuman Gene Map for Performance Phenotype -    ACE – but siXXX

ME: Include co-presenters on Website of abstracts

Nanga Parbut – 8125m Climbing Beyond the Limits Peter Bartsch JAP 63 752-757, 1987 Bender PR, JAP 1989, 66, 2733 -    ventilation increases over 2wks at a given altitude

1m of o2 of blood -    decrease of plasma vol -    inc of EPO

inc of capillary of fibre

M. Redge West and West, High Alt Physio and Medicine, Chapman and Hall

Calbet AJP 184,304-16, 2003

Performance gets better -    Fulco, JAP in press -    But VO2max decreases, stable

Cenbelli 1889 cited in High Alt Medicine and Physio (Ward, Miledge and West) 2000

1% decrese per 100m over 1500m

Calbet, Am J Physio 284, R302-16, 2003 -    no eeffect because

above 500m -    reduced inoXXX uptake -    24% en deficient at 6452 -    Westertop JAP 1994 -    40% @ 5300-8800m -    Westertop JAP 1993 -    43% during OE11 -    Rose, JAP 1988, find deficit not t issue

Anholm, Am Rev Respir Dis 1992 -    breaking pattern at everest

Sutton JAP, 1988 -    Work on cap of everest

Cognitive function remains impaired 1yr after expedition

RB Huey, JAMA 284, 181, 2000

Mie

Thomas Scasz 1973, 115

Medicine and magic -    formerly when religion was strong and sci weak, men mistook magic for medicine, now when sci is strong and religion weak, men mistake medicine for magic

2 assumpt - sport has relationship lack of governance elite sport susceptible to enhancement

Borgmann – t Baconian/Cartesian project -    man goal dominance of nature – athleteic 1984: 36)

Brown-snout.com/cycling/misc

Ex Dict Sport Sci and Medicine, 1994, 29-30

Biotech – instrum structure -    neither good nor bad -    depend on use

Cuttler et al 1998 – nontherap use of HGC

Kass classif of biomed technology -    control of death and life -    irrelevant except: astr: genetic selection -    Control of H potentialities -    Control of h achievements

Elite sport involves/needs suffering

Medicine not about PERFORMANCE ENHANCING, but sports

Juengst – getting back to normal - telos of med

appeal to normality is problematic in elite sport

Boorse 1997 -    abnormal enhanced health?

Normally as constructed or enhanced

Wollheim, 1984, XIV -    without psych, normality is t name for a ill-defined and tortousuly effXX achievement

3 conceptions of norm

1.    BST 2.    Social construct 3.    Psych/psychoanalyt

Sports medicine need to disting between these ideas -    problem in principle -    can we choose?

Tim Noakes – dis H view of lactate paraxoc

Poster -    detect blood doping through comparison of change in RBC and reticulocyte count

cardiac regenerative capacity -    stem cells

new view of how heart responds to injury

a heart is significance myocyte regeneration - new myocyte formuation

post London

apoptosis – prog cell death necrosis – through injury

why only slow fibres affected -    presence of phosophic -    not present in fast twitch

Sport Medicine Ethics (2005, Stockholm)

Sport Medicine Ethics, Stockholm,May 2005-05-24

Christian Munthe Sport, Med and HC

HC goods -    securing certain lev of health (prevention, restoration, ailment) -    in a just way

SM goods – secure health conducive to athletic performance -    beyond HC lev ofhealth and goals, also enhancmenet not approach reqt of justive

dual influences of SM -    ethos of trad med (life and qual, autonomy, justice) -    ethos of sports (supreme performance and excellence), autonomy, fairness

Rationing HC -    HC: need paramount (and prognosis); prov for worse off upto a level; contested ideas about relevance of numbers;l contested ides about relevance of merit/desert -    SM: unclear about what is paramount; resource not limted by same funds; numbers probc; merit desert can work both ways (sports injuries, self inflicted, heroes benefit soc)

Conested procedures – 4 args (doping, etc)

1.    SM should adapt to ethos of HC (either prob: goals different; or: reason for revising 2.    HC adapt to ethos of Sports (excellence, fairness): either: prob: rules and goals of sport arbitrary from medical view, or: recom for breaking SM out of HC 3.    Sports should adapt to ethos of HC (but: safety or justice arg) 4.    HC should adapt to ethos of SM (safet, justice) Either: probc, due to dit; radical revision of HC

Remarks: -    what ethos is relevant for ethos of SM? -    ‘place’ of SM? -    Basic prob for ethos based ethics – virtue sport philosophy, or communitarian theories of justice -    Challenge for medical ethics – sm/sport -    There is no archimedian point -    Inquiries into concrete, partic issues needed

Claudio Tamburini

No difference view – between med everything and sport med ethics – latter only more specific applic of normative framework in med ethics generally – NOT TRUE – eg. Autonomy/privacy function/meaning in different way in sport – sport med more paternalistic – eg. Training technique – athletes are not protected -, must subit to rules, - testing = privacynot same – no difference view obviously wrong

But should they be different? – yes: athletes are not sick – wrong to giv medicine for sick – Lyjungqvist = doping is medicine – ‘athletes are healthy’ – thus athletes are not patients – not general rights of HC system  - what’s wrong w athletes using med (prov not state funded) – athlete are patients – meaning of patient – suffer from pathology – too narrow – today healthy people give treatment – not clear where to draw t line – healthy people already consume – WHO – well-being – dependence of medical prof for (non(athlete – exposure to effect of medicine makes vulnerable and this vuln indicates patient status , regardless of whether customer – athlete? – are patients – conclusion: recog as patient

ME: ethos of medicine is that absence of proof does not mean absence of reasonable expectation or evidence; cannot refer to WHO for support for an ethical view same for anti doping code

Anders Sandberg

Health consumerism – what are enhancement treatments? – alcohol caffeine, etc – st johns wort – ginseng – positive psych – beta blockers (musicians) – growth hormone – since it is an enhanceent(?) – IGF – improved elasticity – cognitive enhancement – social (prozac -= leadership) – acceptance is complex =- is morphological freedom a right? – functional food yes, GM less, but dfferes in culture – Japan 50%, would consider, 66% would for … therapy – Thaliand, India, yes, if adv – WHO – health as optimal but function relation to ones own cgoals – conclusion: doping and enhancement  - performance artists: how they change their body

ME: only medical intervention reqd ; modafinial, global GM same?

Question&A

JS: by allowing enhancement, implies coercion

MMc: autonomy – inc vulnerability = higher standard SH: sm goal fro physiocan as not ‘excelelnt’, but goal of employer – make sure team wins CL: health definition tooo wide – who – boorse – too narrow Tomas (athlete): paternalism – we let athlete do unhealthy things, so not too paternalistic – wada: not prov risk to health – Is pressure on autonomy so freat for an athlete? CT: as patient more exposed to med prof – athlete can choose not to expose themselves JP: beta-blockers not analogous – art and creaft

REF: MIGUEL NICOLELI – NEUROSCIENCE, CHIPS IN ARMS, MAGNETIC

Susan Sherwin

Should we welcome/resign/resist – social polic y or indiv choice? – Francoise Bayliss/ - oppose – to pursue GE = research prog – sports req different kinds of body type – enthusiasm for GE = popular reductionism – avoid enthusiasm welcome – also reject 2nd (resign) – beleief in efficacy will lead to demand (!) – resigned acceptance is self-fulfilling- reject inevitability – opt for resistance – social policy, not indiv choice – indiv choice: autonomy as informed choice – prog grants to challenge rights based – for some implices reduced autonomy – must include right to refuse – but in sport not possible – broader implic for young athletes – most likely to be applied in adolesecenc, this is bad time – cannot claim ‘iformned’ – challenge indiv – reject trad economy defences – reject indiv autonomy and personhood and supplement w relational theory – persns as partially contested by social relations – liberal theorie treat self-hood as indiv, relations -= selfhood as ongoing project – wht are t proceses by which a person holds certain prefers – fem theory – irrationality based on consensus (irrational to resist conformity – become irrational NOT to select enhancement – excellence as GM conveys something to those who are genetically deficitine – new expctation for improvement – entrenches legitimacy of comp (social Darwinism) – precautionaryu princip0le needed – excellence is not GM, but social programes – less sexy perhaps

ME: what else shouldn’t we have done based on this model?

Sarah Teeztsel

Adam Moore – unexamined life..open to inspection – proivacy and tech – gene doping – uise of legl gene theory for sport not acceptable – banning just -    drug testing in sport (Canada report) – invasion of privacy - acknowleged

Nick Bostrom

(w Toby Ord) – good or bad – double epistemic prob – 1. radical disagreement about conseqs, 2. Eval of consqs: even if we know what would happen, diffi to say whether, on balance, is good orbad – double epistemic chance of only major reform – eg implic of abolishing slavery, rely on stat and subj intuitions judgement – biases – ‘status quo’ bias – doc by exptl economits – defined as inapprop or irrational pref for state, just because it is XX – ‘mug’ experiment – choc bar or nice mug – predict that 50% would get what they wantede, but 90% choose to return item – ‘endowment’ effect – place value on something just because given to us – irrational? – but status quo bias clear explanation in bioethics, definition of judgmeent for this

how elminate bias? – hypothetical enhancement of cognitve (eg. Memory) – conseq: should we think enhancenment would have good/bad oconseqs? – oft doubts about this (fear of unknown) – how adjudicate between opposing views – ask counter intuitive: what if did opposite? – decrease human cognitive capacity – clearer agreement that bad – those who also bad must judge why ‘current’ level is optimal – burden of proof is on those who make these claims – seems implausible that isat peak – reversal test –doesn’t say is wrong, but that burden of proof on ‘status quo’ – cognitive enhancement: arg from ‘evol adaptation’ reg ratio of heart size to body size – w cognitive enhancements, arg doesn’t work, since eg enviro different now than was previously (ie now cognitive society, previously physical soc);  - if human cog cap corresponded w brain size, then might be good – preventing costs to bigger brain – now less – now less – what evol optimises, so inclusive fitness, but human sep side undermine this – eg. Intell – 2. Arg from transition costs: (do not sxXX, kust because implies t difficult – cost to great - - 3. Arg from risk – but this works both ways – riskness doesn’t imply anything specific -  cognitive benefits enormous – 4. Arg from ‘persons affecting’ – consier not likely to effect – 2nd reason of reversal – imagine – double reversal – more powerful heuristic – as takes into account these other args – toxin in water, reduce cog, intro therapy to water – then toxin removes, then cog enahncenemts above optimal (double reversal test) – reverswal and double reversal best comforts to status quo bias – it extent bias – must interpolate  2 versions of status quo – can take into account genesis choices , deontological considerations, and social policy – intuition about ‘natural ‘ prevalent in bioethics – natural = good – intuition about natural more properly about ‘status quo’

Mike McNamee Slippery Slope

Half-baked HN – witnessin convergence of system – no human or postmodern consition – but convergenet – views of transhumanism not clear – ‘transcend limits’ of HN is wrong – ‘features? Is more approp – reduce vulnerability to human – posthuman? – use to enahncene H choices – no need to shed HN, but augment – in favour: facilitate 2 aims: use technology to improve Hs – transhumanism: ‘ideal blue print’ – personhood: if indep of species, then moral status maintained – arg: 2 types of being|: human and posthuman – Buchanan et al: found on category of H – no longer common H – expand inequalities – genetically deficient – autonomy as RRATIONAL CHOICE THEORY – DEMOcratic technology is naïve and idealistic – surely coomerce will govern – in elite sport prevalent – double blind: poor pay for pleasure of envy – for other transhuman 0 engineer resistance – what is idal type? – criteria of THN – affront to morality – eg. HR, tranhusmanist might be beyond human – why moved by approach of ‘solidarity’ – life span: agening as a creapping evil – woody allen: ‘immortal not by doing great deeds, but by not dying’ – burden of proof should be on transhumanist – transhumanist has no limits and thi is a prob – eg. Bod transplant – burden of proof is on ‘us’ – t human is ‘repugnant (Kass) – proof of transhumanist (HE!) – misuse of drugs for sport enhancement – genetic enhancement – approach to therapy first and subjective normalise these – Kant’s ‘dove’ – preconditions of dyling – should celebrate human vulnerability

For NB : does arg depend on stable conseqs? Different versions of autonomy

Jared Diamond – h not changed much in thouse years, but h can find new ways of re-working hu  limits – intell  (rather acculating of cuilture allows more effective development )

Kate fox book – ‘what do we want, gradual chance, when do we want it, in due course’

NB: Asian disease prob –

600 will die without intervention

A  - 200 saved 75% B – 1/3 600 saved, 2/3 0 saved 28%

C 400 die 22% D 1/3 0 die, 2/3 600 die %78%

A and C are same

B and D are same People overweigh losses in decision making

JS: satuat quo not irrational -    if neither v good nor v bad, then not irrational -    - if chose for 150 age, but might me 40 yr, stick w 80 -    in absence of giving people choice to change, giv opp to do that o    if has rich, then prob not whether conformist – cosmetic surgery entrenches norms

Jim Parry –

Supplements – rusedski – defence – supplement – is suppleenmt controlled Different between an orange or taking vitamin pill – ME: an orange is more (still don’t really know what foos is) – foods are unknown ssubstances

Soren Holm -    new drugs – social position  - should not expect sports doctors to prov good advice -    no reason to beloieve that no ban would lead to open safer doping

should not pressure people finto taking big risks

sociall construction of rules – and arbitrariness of rules

MMc: autotelicity – have own rules

British Philosophy of Sport Association (2005)

BPSA2005 Conference Notes Sigmund Loland

From morals to medicine – a justification

DISPOSITION Why sport? T values of sport to t indiv and soc A selective, critical review of answers from the past and t current A sketch of a possible justification Some implications

MORALITY Arnold and muscular Christianity Coubertin’s ilympism Nansen: avoid sport and practice idrett – body culture of sports (or rather: skiing, the idrett of idretts) Camus: everything I know about ethics I’ve learned from sports

MORALITY II Doxa: sport is good! Children and youth sport -    a safe enviro -    sport as a tool in socialization elite sports -    the system -    the athlete

BUT Children’s sport and moral development (Bredemaier & Shields; Olweus) Elite sports and the society of the spectacle (Gebauer) The fascistoid roots of our admiration for sport heros (Tannsjo)

No obvious connection between sport and morality

How?

Prevalent ideas related to sport:

HEALTH I 1700s, French Encyclopedie (de Wachter) 1800s: t development of applied physiology and medicine (Hoberman) the workers’ sport movement of the mid war period (AIF) -    picked up idea of sport as health

HEALTH II WHO: overweight a global epidemic 1985-2004: av weight increase in adults +5-6kg 1993-2000: overweight 14yrs old from 7.5%-11.5% (Andersen et al, 2004) SDS: sedentary death syndrome

The hegemonic discourse

But… Crude instrumntalism and sociological naivete Individualization in a visual culture Medicalizartion (Zola, Waddington) Strong paternalism (hidden paternalism) ‘revenge of the body’

how?

Sport as a tool

Experiential qualities I Direct and sensual v win and lose Mastery and failure v cooperation and conflict Pleasure and pain v us and them

Experiential qualities II -    a concrete, embodied and sensual quest for answers to existential questions -    what can I/we do? What are my/our possibilities in time and space? What can i/we do as compared to others? Who am i/we?

Sport: testing out of our possibilities as embodied, sensual I’s

Normative anchoring -    Aristotelian eudaimonism: a holistic theory of ends -    Life as a web of values -    Neo-aristotelian virtue ethics (MacIntyre, McNamee) -    Standards of excellence – internal goods – virtues – moral virtue – the/a good life

CONCLUSION Morality and health as integrated values of variable significance Critique: high strung idealism versus practical knowledge Politics of justification and the unity and diversity of life

Could you imagine a version of boxing that did not fall prey to your sorts of concern – is it the ethos you reject or the activity -    critique is buying into the society of the spectacle thesis, rather than the activity

he is talking about the minds of people who watch

Mike McNamee

Polemical philosophy

‘human nature itself lies on the operating table, rdy for alteration, for eugenic and neuropsychic ‘enhancement’, for wholesale design. In leading laboratories, academic and industrial, new creators are condiently amassing their powers, while on the street their evangelists are zealously prophesying a posthuman future’ (Kass, L, 2002)

motivational set of technology intro -    baconian/Cartesian conceptions of science and its powers -    to question their instantation in a new modern ideology ‘transhumanism’sport medicines, genetics and t ‘enhancement’ ideology -    which Prometheus? Hesoid versus Aeschylus -    from athletic to medical hubris (mortality & Mortality)

technology to control nature -    ME: THIS IS NOT THE WAY THEORISTS OF Philosophy AND TECHNOLOGY ARTICULATE TECHNOLOGY

Nuances of myths of Prometheus – lens for hubris of genetic medicine -

science after bacon -    obsession w physical perfectioniams arises as a moral imperative, as sociologists of body have noted, w increasing pervasiveness of modern technology. Roots oder -    Bacon and Descarte emerges t impulse not merely to describe mechanically t operation of nature, but to control it

Moral topography -    Charles Taylor on moral sources of modern identity -    In sport med, might be about drawing relief, natural and artif of work of scientists therein -    As a metaphor for what I take to be t natural work of medicine in the relief of suffering and t artificiality of perf enhancement or t augmentation of natural abilities as opposed to t tradl therapeutic role of medicine

Physicians often sucked into ‘enhancement’

Nature and purposes of medicine hotly contested Roots in healing tradition Assist in presence of someone who suffers Telos of medicine This is lost to sports medicine

Kass’ classification of biomedical technology -    control of death and life -    control of human potentialities -    control of human achievements -    Kass, L.. (1985, 19-24) -    IVF – redefines life and death (not for this paper – ME: YES IT IS!)

Control of human potentialities

Genetic engineering wields 2 powers not shared by medical practice 1.    medicine treats exiting indivs and corrects deviations from health norms 2.    genetic engineering promises alterations to future generations (germ line therapy) and may create new capacities (hence new norms of health/fitness)

ME: HE PRESENTS A CRITIQUE ON GERMLINE ONLY

Changing germline is new.  – ME: NOT REALLY

Not merely to restore, but to augment -    ME: MEDICINE ALWAYS AUGMENTS

Contrl of human capacities -    the limits of many capacities and powers of an idiv are indeed genetically determined, but t nurturing and perfection of these capacities depends upon other influences’ (Kass, 23) (eg. Neurological and psychological manipulation -    ‘from its inception, modern science has been especially interested in finding reliable biological means-means more effective than exhortation or praise or blame-to attain t ends of sensible, decent, human conduct and peace of mind’ (ibid)

new ethics for new  biology. But not sure -    ME: WHEN PEOPPLE ARGUE THIS, THEY DO NOT MEAN THAT WE NEED NEW WAYS OF DOING ETHICS, OR NEW THEORISTS, BUT THAT THE RELATIONSHIPS UPON WHICH ETHICS ARE PREMISED, PARTIC IN MEDICINE, HAVE CHANGED. ALBERT JONSEN’S CASUISTRY, TOD CHAMBERS ‘NARRATIVE’ - New biology: old ethics -    Edelstein (1967: 357-9) notes t ancient greek philosophers task of undermining t glorification of t body -    McKenny cites pplat’s questions in t Republic when..

Plato’s questions -    how much attention should we dvote t our bodies in t effort to optimize our capacities? -    How much control should? -    What endsw? -    What limits …remove causes of suffering?

Scientist – reductionism -    ME: CANNOT ARGUE THIS.

New biology: new ethics? -    ideology – transhumanism -    strong transhumanism – -    weak transhumanism – human nature is a half-baked project o    no respect for sanctity of life

Sports medicine and scientism -    formerly when religion was storng and science weak, men mistook magic for medicine; now, when science is strong and religion weak,

anti-ageing main concern -    we should shed human nature -    taylor ‘we are vulnerable’ -    we should do everything we can to stop it

ME: critique of sci fi!?

Concern about ‘ideal blueprint’

Habermas, jonas, kass, macintryre,

ME: chris gray – cyborg -    sex alteration surgery -    disability

TRANSHUMANISTS UNDER NO ILLUSION

‘Natural is meaningless’ (miah) -    not meaningless, but you might disagree with it

Prometheus (2 versions) – THIS MYTH IS NOT HELPFUL. WHY PICK THIS MYTH? -    overpower god -    cunning of human to be as good as god

ME A WIDE RANGING THESIS – TOO AMBITIOUS DISAGREE WITH THEORY OF SCIENCE/MEDICINE/TECHNOLOGY – PHILOSOPHY OF BIOLOGY CERTAINLY REFLECTS HOBERMAN’S EXPRESSION OF PAST DISAGRE WITH REPRESENTATION OF TRANSHUMANISM DISAGREE W DIPICTION OF GENETICS

IVF – SAME KINDS OF ARGUMENT – NOW WE HAVE, JUST THIS WEEK, LAW LORDS PERMITTED ‘SAVIOUR SIBLINGS’

VIRTUOUS ROBOT?

FRIDAY AM

Anna

Corporeality

Heidegger

Man is man as far as is hand can reach, as far as the purpose of his world extend

Become corporeal by means of hand and speech

Why the hand and not the leg?

Corporeality process

Man assumes emotional figures – existence

Postmodern

We don’t understand ourselves

Universal values have vanished

Gypsies of Europe

Predicated by Nietzsche

Great strength is greatest priority

Speech is essential part of our corporeality Doesn’t pertain only to doctors or semiology, or grammarians, literates, etc

Speech is only an extn of the hand

When hand no longer writes through hand, but through speech, what will happen -    breaking of art, where hand forms meaningful words

what will happen with speech and words -    changed only into symbols

speech taken over by semiology

profound meanings of words will dwindle

transformed into a machine, tool?

Production merely

Physical education responsibility for speech

Hand and words are only means to transcendence

What will happen with the hand?

Managed by computers

Transcendence by sport is victory over self

What about a typing competition -    give someone a title and ask them to write it

LEON CULBERTSON

Hoberman – dehumanisation- ME:  but  he meant alienation (and he is right)

ME: do we need a precise notion of human? (I think he is also arguing for this)

Warnock – embryo rights – she - we don’t need to get into humanness (ME: but that agrees w Warnock!)

humans – as homo sapiens (strong) -    dignity persons (weak)

we are all human – product of our actions

ME: prob is that we do operationalise human!

Dehuman, not less than human Use to work human in weak sense, but not humanness

Edgar – dignity – undignified – don’t talk about dignity when feel undignified

Human definition arises out of sense of being dehumanised

Persons need not be human (McNamee? ME: no!)

What gives sport value?which sport, for whom, etc?

Contextual

Clear view of t misunderstanding Terms such as dehuman used in specific kinds of context

Contrasts – different beings -    prob is that they are oft drawn in way -    drawing t line – ME: we don’t like it, but this is how people conceptualise issues!

Degrading – lack of feeling is inhuman, but not non-human

GEOFF PARSONS

Selection as a vehicle – throughout sport and elsewhere

Conflict of differing philosophy in sport

Different between objectively measured sports and subjectively measured (team sports)

Gov policy driven by sports councils – uk sport

New athlete contract just published -    given to 16yr old, 17p document -    says: we all agree that the overriding thing is to win medals at Olympic championships

institutions of sport act as guardians

performance directors in governing bodies – their job is to win medals – they now have subjective method by which to select people – Olympic profiling – to receive funding and stay in programme, reqs to meet perf directors assessment of what is Olympic profiling -    is asked ‘if athlete wins championship for 3 years, would they get on programme’ – performance  dir says no. -    creates biased selection policies

In objective sport, should be no selectors – performance  on day matters only

Blame governing bodies – complicit, rejected commerce, thirst for resources,

Government role -    top down agenda in very item -    UK Sport cd: seeking perfection

Performance director should be tied to the performance of the athletes for which they make selection

When threatened, sports institutions act like nation states

British sport should celebrate process, rather than medals

WHAT ARE GOVERNING BODIES FOR YOU? WOULD YOU REPLACE THEM WITH SOMETHING ELSE? DIFFERENT PEOPLE?

BIOETHICS AND DOPING

Definition of sport – psychophysio sphare

Doping in sport relationship – if doping is alteration in different relational spheres -    intra personal – relationship betweenathlete and body o    doping – loss of develo of personality o    limit – surpass oneself -    inter personl – negation of propium over sport -    doping compression of games diemsion o    not charac by gratuitousness o    perversion

doping = rejectiung principle outlayed breq to entre into comp

Dr Giovanni Franchi Universita di Teramo giovfranchi@libero.it

ALUN HARDMAN

Different kinds of injury -    injury prior to contest -    iinjury sustained to non-contXX -    injurie sustained as reslt of actions from non-contestant -    injuries sustained as result of foul play

referee must top t game – ME: t player should adopt some referee status -    t rule is badly formulated -    self-offciating/governing -    is it fair only if we interpret t incorrect reading of the rule?

Fraleigh Right Actions -are players following guiding of principleof equal of opp intentionality is imp non-moral principle

health/well being not only concern -    do not stop player if ‘normal injury

ME: if injured player is on attacking team?

Principle of voluntary and dual assessment

Permit medical team to attend to athlete without ceasing play

Is guilt approp response to injury? McNamee, EJSS 2002 -    shame and moral failing, guilt and shame – guilt proper respons to transgress of code, shame is not reaching an ideal -    -if harm unintntionly, rawls says subjective guilt – guilt sign of virtue – causally responsible but not morally

GRAHAM MCFEE

Popper – overstaed claimn of sci method rejected

Account of science -    Popper? -    Creation science -    If meet Popper

Kuhn – different between natural nad social science -    truth denied, t pomo -    natural sci – 2 phases: normal sci – unpacking of past insight, paradigm in place – crisis and revolution when absence of single paradigm – makes no sense -    physics etc failure to invoke conXX over fundamentals -    sociology always contested  - Kuhnan explans why

limitations – socio,psych have competing view of social world Kuhn – how align?

But should be – social world – perspective dependent

question about why in social science you have paradigm claim as barrier to conversations between subject areas?

State of Play Conference (2005, April, Preston)

‘State of Play’ Conference UCLAN 27-28th April 2005 Day 1: Programme for Wednesday 27th April (revised)

Arrive UCLAN Foster Car Park/Reception

Registration and Buffet Lunch 10am -12.40 Foster Building Scholars Restaurant and Bar

Opening Plenary 12.55 - 1.25 Ian Blackshaw The Court of Arbitration for Sport Comes of Age Adelphi TVI Lecture Theatre

Panel 1: Doping 1.30 – 3.30pm Richard Cramer Hazel Hartley John O’Leary Andy Miah Adelphi TVI Lecture Theatre Chair: Hilary Findlay

Panel 2: Civil/Criminal Liability 1.30 -3.30pm Dave McArdle Mark James Viv Ivins Adam Pendlebury Adelphi LT 114 Chair: Simon Boyes

Coffee: 3.30 - 3.45pm

Panel 3: Image and Spectacle 3.45 - 4.45pm Susan Fletcher Sefletcher2@uclan.ac.uk Paul Boylan Adelphi TVI Lecture Theatre Chair: YvonneWilliams

Panel 4: Post -Fandom 3.45 – 4.45 pm Simon Gardiner Robin Manser Jonnny Magee Adelphi LT 114 Chair: Paul Wilson

Close of Day 1: Deepdale Wine Reception 6.30pm –Dinner 7.30pm

Day 2: Programme for Thursday 28th  April (revised)

Panel 5: E.U Freedoms 9am – 10-15am Geoff Pearson Clifford Stott Simon Boyes

Adelphi Conference Room Chair: Steve Cornelius

Coffee: 10-15am -10-30am

Panel 6: Discrimination 10-30am -11-55am John Wolohan Yvonne Williams Steve Cornelius Adelphi Conference Room Chair: Mark James

Closing Plenary 12- 1pm

Hilary Findlay

Adelphi TVI Lecture Theatre

Weds

Image and spectacle

Sports celebrities

Golfer Doug mccormack

Justification for right of privacy in US

Tort of passing off in uk (since 2002, before ‘deformation’ only course of action, and relies on negative), protects (no right of privacy in uk)

2 types of practice - product endorsement (celeb assoc w product) character merchandising (product is about celeb buut not clear whether endorsed, not protected by copyright – de minimus principle – too trivial to be protected) need to register celeb name as trademark as early as possible

trademarks -    photos and other portraits (is possible to register as a trademark) – image that I registered is trademarked, not all images of that face – must be capable of distinction

photos of people at work – eg cantona scoring goal – diffi to estab, since other traders might want to use them

justice lavey – elvis presley case – where there is trade….that person has no right to stop others..legit trading in image

must use images that are distinctive

with endorsements -    goal of advertiser is to use recognition factor to draw on ‘halo’ effect – eg. Because beckham is brilliant footballer, if used for Gillette, tht must be brilliant too

talksport commissioned agency to produce 3 box sets – shorts w skidmarks eddie Irvine on front – without permission – no issue w photo, since itw as purchased from agency, photo had also been changed – mobile phone transformed to radio – justice lalley decided it was passing off – ref mccullock v may (where same line of business imp) – ‘common for famous people to exploit their images….reason why large sums are paid for…those in .believe that..endorsee takes benefit – upheld by Court of Appeal, despite criticisms on judgement

need to clarify whether good will

need to show actual damage

diffi to bring action on passing off

in this case, it increased pay off from £2000 to £20000 because Irvine said that was minimum he would accept for this kind of endorsement – often, ends up this way, so can take the risk

David Bedford – 2 lookalike figures- directory inquiries service 818 – he had not endorsed. But if he had tried this on passing off, would have had problems – that image is no longer viable, and it wasn’t actually his image that was good, it was look-alikes

If you had personality rights, it would have a remedy

Justice Lalley in Talksport and Irvine talked about modern commerce, but Art 8 of ECHR might have worked – celeb endorsements: any negative publicity, might be transferred back to product, thereby reducing brand equity, so imp that reputation be maintained.

HRA came into force -    Art 8 and 10, -    Does not fully incorporate ECHR (incl privacy right) -    Though courts have interpreted them in context of eCHR8 and 10

Court considered both 8 and 10 in separation, since neither had priority -    court of appeal found in favour of defendant, The Mirror

A & B and C – footballer – newspaper published details about his relationship Lord Wolf ‘ where an indiv is a public figure, he is entitled to privacy in appropriate circums..though must accept that will be subject to scrutiny by media’

Justice Langley, no interim injunc to publish rev of beckham’s former nanny -    story in clear public interest -    nanny ‘fortune based on them having successful marriage’

are we all entitled to t same degree of privacy? -    athletes, politicians?, is it relevant that sports stars often treated as role models?

Other issues Deformation Data protection

Beckham in junction – analogy w Naomi Campbell case – mirror found out she had taken drugs, when she claimed she had not

V fact that beckhams are unique is because of this marriage, so perhaps it is in public interest

Q&A

Athletes as role models? Evidence? -

negotiator

licensing of computer programming

language concerned – English or Japanese – French as comprormise

spectacle of the sport

the spectacle has become international big money

so much money involved in org sport

challenged by Internet

essence of spectacle is money (as control of spectacle)

control by contract (player contracts in particular)

3 parties to every player contract - player, organisation, trade union

baseball, prob not steroid use, but that contracts arranged by trade unions prohibit testing -    eg of how powerful union can be: unfair labour practice claim -    john mcgee – player contracts out of control – to detriment of players themselves

in each contract, because dealing w people, not product like any other – need meaningful relationship

research opponents

confidentiality agreement essential -    between player and association -    do not want others to know what you are paying -    nobody knows what other players are getting -    to avoid constant battles

other aspects to spectacle -    beckham nanny: she breached confidentiality agreement, failure of lawyer o    lawyer did not write contract to convince nanny that disclosing would be risky o    why did she go to paper? They promised her indenification – paper knew she would breach agreement and they agreed to pay it o    could have used liquidated damages conract – give incentive to her not to go to paper o    lawyers should have realised that someone would come forward

fantasy sports -    who owns statistics? British law says no. US authority say the people who manufacturerd it have a right to exploit it -    in US fantasy football worth $3billion dollars in profit -    it wil not end up before court, because too much to lose for both, so negotiation inevitable -    in UK, says this is public info stats

Q&A

Motorola downloading info, creating more info out of raw data – breach of copyright issue failed -    unjust enrichment for US, not similar to Motorola

for fantasy football – is it fair for someone to profit from something they did not produce -    implied license, so will compromise

Thursday

EU Freedoms

Simon Boyes, SL at NTU Law School Caught behind or following on?

Cricket

Kulpak

English cricket system now moved to permitting 2 overseas players in county teams

Implications -    oppo to play against intnational players, but result is fewer opps for local players to get into team -    lottery funding goes to overseas players

bosman case 2key elements -    transfer fee at end of contract, now in breach of Euro articles treaty (restrtc freedom) -    abolished discrim on basis of nationality on limitations to foreign (EU) players

for cricket, transfer fee not relevant really

player quotas has had a relevance

kolpak, analogous to second part of bosman – right not to be discrim against, once in employment – he was a Slovak handball player and was goalkeeper in second division – was subject to quota inquiry

euro court of justice – if association agreement, gives right not to be discrim against based on nationality –

cottonow agreement – similar to kolpak - kolpack does not give right of access to employment, but merely, once in employment ,not to be discrim against

recent change I work place employment

used to be case that commonwealth citizen could obtain working holiday permit – now changed – acting as sports person is not ok – implic for west Indian states and south Africa – but if can satisfy criteria and state no interest to play test cricket, is relatively easy to get in –

EC sees as imp – new strategy, continue w rules but use incentive scheme – give counties £200 per player per day for evry English player  = £20,000 per year perhaps – trying to drive foreign players out

Not appropriate, since tends towards discrim

Has the effect of discouraging teams to not employ foreign players

Cricket is different and this is making a wrong choice

Symptomatic of sports

Assumes can transplant bosman to other sports

Cricket can argue for some level of discrim

Uk only member state that offers opp to play pro cricket

For bosman, argued would diminish opp for pro players, but dismissed because of reciprocal opps

For cricket, this reciprocation not possible

Structure of cricket different from football, impc of test game cannot be overstated – test deal with ECB and sky – stated they needed to do this because test game provides money for grassroots –

Health of England team signif to sport, so more worthy of protection

English high court since 1978 kerry pakka case – test cricket a value worth protecting

Describe as a structural rule

Geoff Pearson, Liverpool Uni, Management School Football related Legal responses to football holiganism, policing of football grounds

Keeping a sense of proportion: Football banning orders and the fundamental freedoms of ‘known’ hooligans

Problem -    English fans reputation for disorder -    40,000 english fans in 1998 -    60,000 man u fans in 1999 -    euro 2004, upto 250,000 attended

serious disorder at france 1998 965 arrests at Euro2000

probs w previous Banning order legislation

Football Disorder Acts -    banning order for hooligans, known to cause trouble -    not new, first introduced in1986, Public Order Act, sect 30 -    Football Spectator’s Act o    If convicted of crim offence relationship to football, prevented from travel when game takes placeabroard

1999 legislation unsuccessful

Football (Disorder) Act 2000 -    Schedule, Sction 14B, new type of banning order to be more effective o    Banning order on complaint (as opposed to conviction) o    If suspected hooligan – big leap! -    If suspected to have contributed to violence, and if court satisfied, magistrate must impose order -    Police watching suspected hooligans, compiling evidence, and proceeding on civil procedure -    ME: how long?

Civil Libertarian concerns w baning orders on complaint -    treaty of EU – right to leave one’s territory -    ECHR – Art 4 liberty and Art 6 fair trial (because introducting punative criminal penality on civil stat case)

Gough a Smith v Chief Constable of Derbyshire (202) QB 1213 -    ECHR (was banning order contravion on Art 6? -    EU treaty (was it proportional) (Does it apply in this case?)

was it applied in gough and smith, and are banning orders on complaint a proprtioanl response?

Proportionality Principle -    must be suff imp to justify limiting a fundamental right o    how serious a prob is football hoolianism? Court don’t like it, though not sure it is really so signif •    every week English fans travel abroad, so number of incidences is quite small •    media hype-up, we don’t see much of uk violence o    Statistics of arrest, conviction, death and injury •    Suggest prob is reducing, no stats on death or injury (1 per year for 25million spectators) •    For Euro2000 arrests, only one was charged w an offence o    Comparison w other cross-border crime (paedophiles, etc) -    measures must be rationally connected o    how imp are banning orders on complaint to t control of football crowds? o    Are those involved in disorder known hooligans? o    Does preventing known hooligans travelling to matches necessarily prevent crowd disorder o    Not actually known hooligans gathering together that causes probl; if properly policed, no probs; but where not policed well, problems arise -    no more than is necessary o    are there other ways to control problem rather than infringing these rights? •    Banning orders on conviction (ME: but can they get convictions? Otherwise, why so few cases?) •    Policing tactics •    More efforts on Fan Policing (support legit expectation of fans) (typically, where a few incidents of violence, police go straight in to entire crowd, rather than select few) • -    De Freitas v Perm Sec of ministry of Agriculture (1999) 1 AC 69 o    This test not thoroughly applied in Gough o    Infringements of civil libs are out of proportion

On strictest version, talks about least restrictive alterantive -    not just whether connected or necessary, but whether is less restrict alternative

ME: what is basis for concluding that courts are so influenced (out of proprtion) by hooligans on tv?

Clifford Stott, Uni of Liverpool

Proportionality in psych of riot

Science of crowd dynamics

Football crowds not just hooligans

Crowd dynamics and riots at international tournaments -    those arrested and convicted are not known hooligans -    identity based processes involving intergroup interrels -    police play pivotal role in structuring these rels

category of being an English fan affects way they are policed -    creating enviro empowers those seeking to create disorder -    they are facilitated by the form of policing -    level forceful and indiscrim forms of policing, based on reputation, rather than behaviour -    English fans arrive and begin to perceive form of policing as illegitimate – see this as affront to rights

When fans perceive policing as legit, then changes dynamics -    eg Scotland fans, emerging sense of leigitmacy in police and self-policing

absense of disorder has little to do with fans, more to do w rels

implics for policing

Euro 2004

collab w PSP (one of portugal’s two forces) create enviro consistant w research

risk is dynamic risk emerges, not fixed interaction of groups influences level of risk

‘balance’ in risk scenario -    police in balance implies low profile deployments, results in spych and behav different

ME: is it difficult for police to target arrest in big crowds?

Discrimination

? South Africa

Chances of aids transmission in sports arena v slim so not subject to compulsory testing, since is unnecessary and in legal context of south Africa, is v precise about rights to eg human dignity, privacy, equality, choice of profession

Chalk v California -    Judge: plaintiff will have to estab that defendent sporting body is receiving funding from gov and that enjoys public patronage

Aids now (since last week) considered a form of disability, which changes sitn somewhat.  Justice jones: confidentiality vital to public and private health

Recog right to dignity, intrinsic value of human – respect and concern

Diffi to force athlete to undergo a test

X v Y and Another

Cf hiv testing and doping? -    hiv more invasive and less accurate

Steve Cornelius, Uni of Johannesburg, Centre for Sport Law

South African Measures to Combat Unfair Discrimination in Sport

Assumed that in SA apartheid implied merely racial, but also concern about gender and disability

Bill of Rights (starting point for all law in SA) -    s 8.2 – binds everybody -    matter of public law

right to non-discrim -    s 9.4 -    no person may unfairly discrim -    not all discrim is bad o    s9.4 prohibits unfair discrim (implies that there is fair discrim) -    s 36.1 – limitations clause (law of gen applic; based on human dignity, equality and freedom, in democratic soc) -    s9.2 – affirimative action measures

legislation -    prom of equality and prevention of unfair discrim act o    if unfairly refuse to consider applic, then unfair •    provides for action, do not need to show actual harm o    denying access to club o    failure to promote diversity in selection of rep teams

SA Sports Comm Act -    coordinate provision and upgrade of facilities in disadvantaged areas -    assist in development (lot of emphasis on women in sport)

Yvonne Williams

Do volunteer coaches have right to refuse responsib to coach people w disabilities?

DDA1999, part 3 – sports coaching is a service, so cannot discrim against a disabled person by refusing to coach or way they do it.

Direct discrim  - treat less favourably then how treats/would treat others

Indirect discrim – same activ offered to all, but disabled treated less favourably or put at disadv

Case in US, using computer aids to hunt

John Wolohan

Discrim laws in us

Racketball player w disability, wants to play w able bodied, and instead of one bounce in the game, he wants to have two – adjust t rules to accommodate a disability

Child w disability takes longer through highschool – rule that only under 19 can play in school sports – so cannot play – but rule is discrim disability?

Casey martin – pro golfer, trying to qual for PGA tour, to get card need to go to qualifying school – he has made it to stage 5 until which he has been allowed to ride a cart – requested for final stages and pga tour – pga tour reject request –

Supreme court grant right to use cart

Walking in golf not really fatiguing and deven if it is casy martin’s fatigue getting in and out of cart is greater than well-athlete

Decided that essence of golf was shot making

Does pga have right to set rules? If pga says it is essential, who is the court to say otherwise?

Asking to modify game just so you can play is not reasonable – it is creating a new game -    able bodied player will have to learn how to play you in different ways, this is not fair

is it a ‘reasonable accommodation’?

Closing Plenary

Hilary Findlay

Canadian Independent Dispute Resolution Programme

Genevieve Turninkey? -    ‘dispute resolution’ ‘real growing activity’

ian blackshaw author of book on ‘mediation in sport’

rules of an arbitration process as instrument of sport policy

what is approp scope of review for sport dispute? -    how broad are grounds of review? -    What is standard of review? -    What scope of authority, when error found?

Appeal layer

If appeal panel has made error, then judicial review (v narrow)

April 2004, dispute res intro to canadian sport

Doping infraction for horse, trainer acknowl that horse given substance by vet that was prohib – this was not raised in hearing, since accepted by all – rules state where horse doped, trainer responsib – but held that vet responsib – strict liability, so trainer liable – parties waived internal appeal process – q about scope of arbitration – hearing de novo (everything relevant should be seen – argued this was too broad –

Second athlete not selected – went directly to arbitration – include first and second round or only second, where issue

Broader scope of review, further usurps authority of sport org

What standard of review to determine whether error?

Technology and Sport (2004, San Sebastian)

San SebastianDec, 2004

Basque

Thank you very much -  Milaesker Hello – Kaixo

Regards - gorantziak

Zer moduz – how are you

Aldor Cobanera

Edurne Pasaban – Alpinista (athlete?) elite,  Mountain Climber -    only woman on opening panel -    since 1998, major changes in technology -    in climbing, far better known thanks to technology -    materials, but also other technology connected with communication -    ICT to stay in touch through mobile phone technology -    Telephoning from summit -    Breakthrough in medicine and technology o    Can contact physicians  when injured in mountain -    Even more important in a minority sport -    Now when on expedition, now take laptop, mobile phone, web access -    It is still difficult to peak -    Technology does not help that much

Victor M. Izquierdo Loyola, Subdirecter General of the Info Soc Enterprises, Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade -    ministry of trade -    EC paper on IT o    Talks about how applics and experience should be present from beginning of research design o    Users must be the consideration of a product development

Noberto Santiago Elustondo, President of GAIA -

Jaime Lissavetzky Diez,  Sec of State for Sports and President of the Higher Council for Sport -    subjects have economic and social impact -    physical activity,  and doping -    which is most important? – boosting of physical activity, particularly interesting. -    Enormous amount of consumption

Juaqin Villa, Dept of Innovation and t Knowledge Society -    need to create social network for innovation -    innovation broader than technical and corporate o    also management, services, o    not just in company enviro o    society in general o    innovation as a social phenomenon o

ME: Nobody yet has actually addressed the social concerns, but they have been intimated.

Kim Blair Technology and Sports: Developing Consumer Products

2000 Olympics -    Speedo Fastskin – received tremendous pulblicity, Speedo said, anyone can have one, so was ok. -    Sydney pool was state of the art – hardly discussed -    Reason why records broken in Sydney, was because of the pool o    Though did not have the political resonance

Trek Madone 5.9 Bicycle – I used by Lance Armstrong in Tour de France

Technology and Golf -    1920s Steel Shafts replace hickory shafts -    1960s: fiber glass, aluminium titanium shafts – never made it to market

change was an ‘accident’ -    material not caused change, but that titanium springs -    St Andrews changed spirit of rules – face of club has spring like effect -    In golf industry, believe that curve will flatten out -    When technology introduced, see sudden change, then flattens out and comes back to athleticism

Sports Producct Industry

Attitude to risk -    nuclear, civil engineering and aerospace industry o    slow to adopt new technologies o    whether or not technology is viable o    high regulatory climate -    sporting goods manufacturer - o    Marketing and fashion driven •    Marketing often head of product development •    Signif vol of product sold by brandingt •    Signature products, star endorsement •    Need to seel your vision and the ‘wow’ factor o    Time to market is fast •    Typical small changes on seasonale schedule •    Continuous product intro o    Research horizon •    5 yrs is long •    less than two years typical o    Personnel •    Closed network o    Highly secretive •    Technology barriers are low •    Extremely high lev of secrecy on new products •    Control ofIP is reqd by sports company

No innovation infrastructure in US -    nothing llike SPORTIS

Before 2004 Tour de France, Lance Armstrong called sponsors wanting to put together F1 team – Trek Nike Oakley, Giro and HED – to form collab effort between them

USOC -    relies on product sponsors for nearly all product R&D

Developing Sport Products: Product Attributes -    need to understand all -    aesthetic -    attributes of association -    perceived attributes -    emotional attributes -    style

User-Centred Focus -    talk with lead users – passionate sports people o    understand what they like in their product o    understand why they are passionate about sport o    understand how sport influences daily lives o    understand how daily lives influ their sport -    understand core market o    development surveys o    validate t data o    typically use demographic data -    understand own business o    innovation/product needs to send right message about company’s vision

Cost Sensitivity -    eg. Consider cost of raw materials o    golf tee about 2x cost of materials •    change in material has huge impact on cost o    Golf club about 20x cost of materials •    Change in material has small impact on final cost •    Can change to more expensive…

Heart Rate monitors – 20yrs ago, people did not understand it. Now a company come out with a product and lot of effort in training consumers in using that tool. Plan for and expect slow product adoption

Never underestimate challenge of changing consumer behaviour

Capturing Product Value

Limiting comp -    retain control of IP -    retain key assets o    people, trade secrets, licensing, partnership agreements -    typically, technical barriers are low – easy to copy something new

Developing Alliances - Large multi-nationals -    have patents in place -    development clear vision for product from customer’s viewpoint -    more complete t concept t better

Universitie -    useful for product testing -    can be useful for prototype development -    due diligence required on IP ownership

Venture backed efforts -    develop venture division of your company -    solicity ideas from inventors (internal or external)

consultants -    highly recommended to have ‘insiders’ on team -    provide industry expertise -    prodide industry introductions

Rene Eijlens Innovation for Gold

Beat the heat Clothjing -    hat used to remove heat from head.

European Paralympic Committee -    from therapeutic to elite -    technology central to this development

LUNCH

Xtema… - golfer

FRIDAY MORNING

Xabeir Azkargorta -    medico y entrenador de futbol

En busa del futbolista excelente Luis Fradua Universidad de Granada

Nestor Lucas Cairos System: the intelligent football

Radio based tracking system that analyses data of ball and players in real time

Useful for referee, for graphical presentation of replay

Xabier Azkargorta -    technology is leading to an easier contest and reluctance to train as hard -

ICSSPE Pre-Olympic Congress (2004, Thessaloniki)

ICSSPE Pre-Olympic Congress,Thessaloniki, August, 2004-08-07

Bengt Saltin Energetic limits to performance

Leo Hsu

Concept of the good foul Bsketball Soccer

Good foul unethical -delib interfere - no equal opp for contest -    not agreed on

good foul not cheating -    cheating: intention to deceive and unfair adv -    good foul: intention to break rules  plus unfair adv

simon ‘strategic foul’ -    intention and action -    penalty might become adv cheating\break rules deilib avoid penalty inend to deceive win or gain adv

good foul breaking written rules delib expect to accept penality win and gain adv

a good player… -good intention act rightly keep spirit

concl good foul -    not cheating -    against purpose of sport -    morally wrong act -    indicates deficiency of rules -    violates spirit

Q&A Scott: opponent stalling – good player wants to play good game, so breaks a rule in order to create a good game. Is this good foul? -    response: NO

Sigmund: Good foul morally wrong act, but ethos

Leo: depends on defn of morally right: - if ethos is morally justified, then ok, but if not, then is morally wrong.

Heather

Beauty of Olympic sport typically allow more than one way of playing the game Not clear whether poss to decide between beautiful and corrupt -    elitism, sexism, racism

need to estab criteria for changing sports practices

set out Rawls’ method reflective  equilibrium

narrow -    justif ororig posn, if match -    choose strongest convictions as fixed points then work backwards

wide -    demonstrate why justified to apply in  specific contexts, by increasing breath of test

benefits -    clarification, systematic, democratic

going through process of wide refl equilib help clarify views

can uncover more systematic

democratic: in context of other beliefs. Where conflicts with other values, then indication of problem

disadv with this method -    uniersal and cross Cultural undemocratic -    indivs and their interests

diving or shirt pulling in elite soccer, decision could include everyone in debate as to whether is acceptable – these people unlikely to be aware of internal goods of game -    they’re likely to have limited knowl of game (HMMM) -    to follow wide refl  equilib

abstraction is undemocratic, since must disconnect from cultural context

democracy not about truth

while wide refl equilib is useful – it is too thin, since too far removed from sports practices to have any normative force -    could not determine which ethos is most justified.

Tradition practice bound reasoning: -    Which criteria? -    Who ought to evaluate?

Liberal interpret of practice community allows spectators, etc -    only views about goods internal to game count -    a limited  democracy, providing correct credentials

Gunnar: -    would work in new sports, with fast developing ethos -    would rely on imagination of people to a much higher degree

Mike -    liberalism v communitarianism

Sigmund Loland Fairness in spor t- critical comments on Olympic competitions

Not Fairness as indiv obligation, but ‘structural’ fairness -    when is a competition fair,not when is a competitor fair

fairness in sport -    competitions -    relevant and non-relevant inequalities -    fairness ideal -    implementation of fairness in practice

gen principles of fairness -    eliminate or compensate for inequals that exert SIGNIF influ on performance o    indivds cannot control and influt o    for which cannot be held responsible

-    conseqs for Olympic  sport?

Inequalities -    ext conditions -    person-dependent inequalities: INCLUDING GENETIC MAKEUP, BODY SIZE, ETC -    system inequalities

ext cond -    direct competition – standardisation -    indirect comp (outdoor) – seeded groups, drawing of positions

person depdendent -    sex and age, over-clasficiation (sex classification seems reasonable in some sports – where biological differences are significan, though in others, they are not justified) o    – ME: interesting analogy for genetics, would we seek to ensure athletes are all the same age? To what degree? Where it seems to have some influence on performance, we should. -    body weight – under classification

CAN SPORT SUPPORT ADDITIONAL CLASSES AND DISTINCTIONS AND DO YOU THINK IT POSSIBLE TO LOOK TOWARDS PARALYMPIC DISTINCTIONS TO IMAGINE HOW IT MIGHT FUNCTION? - A QUESTION ABOUT THE SPORTING SPECTACLE AND ITS VALUES

TALENT IDENTIFICATION IN SPORT

What makes a Champion?

Talent -    natural endowment or superior ability -    single most imp factor contributing to achievement -    other factors include

identified developed selected science or art?

Intuition, rolling dice, magic, sport science (multidisciplinary, evidence based)

Nature v nurture

Genetic endowment -    intrinsic potential 46xy -    structure, function, behav -    genetic manipulation -    next doping frontier?

Environmental influence -    extrinsicfactors

Suzuki Method -    all  Japanese children speak Japanese -    inborn greatness or mediocrity not known -    advanced ability can be nurtured  in any child

Why does it matter? -    parental imperative -    Olympic imperative -    Financial imperative

Jason Gulbin -    South Australian Sports Institute -    AIS -    National Coordinator of Talent Search -    Published on athlete profiling, ex induced muscle damage

Thomas Reily -    Liv John Moores -    President-elect of Int. Soc Adv. Kinanthropometry

Darlene Kluka -    Grambling State University -      Volleyball talent

Jason Gulbin Paradigm Shifts in Talent Identification National Talen Search Coordinator, AIS

Concerned about young athlete and talent identification – but much of the work is also on older athlete

Terminology Talent (identification/detection) – athletes from outside of the sport (non-specialist, quasi scientific approach, to examine predisposition for a specific sport) Talent Selection (within the sport, watching athletes) Talent Development (vital to process)

Intentiaonal Search for answers Ireland (NCTC) 2001 -    factors prpmoting and inhibiint  success of H Performance players and athletes n=207

USOC 2002 Talent id and devel of US Olympians

AIS 2003 How do elite Athlete develop n=681

NZAS 2004 Linking promise to t podium taskforce report

Why such a focus on this area?

Australian Typical spending patterns ($AUS)

Costs $37m for a gold medal

$8m for any medal

(Hogan and Norton, 2000)

reducing costs isa  huige bonus

US Census Bureau 2000

Population for Oz significantly less than other countries, so identification critical

National Talent Search Program 10 yr programme www.ais.org.au/talent in each academy, talent search coordinator phase 1: ask pe teachers in highschools to collect data for basic phys test phase 2: submitted to talent search coordinator phase 3: if athlete good, invited to talent devel programme

program  issues -    growth and devel conundrum (too much to measure, children of same age too different) -    labour intensive  (reject around 95% of data from schools) -    athlete acceptance uncertainty (not all kids want to do selected sport) -    variable enthusiasm of schools/teachers -    information privacy concerns (now, they use id numbers, rather than names) -    inability to respond to immediate needs of coaches in age group ( -    emerging adulthood and retention

paradigm shifts -    broad – focussed -    young – older -    novice – experienced -    schools - public domain -    TID

e.g Cycling -    ad in paper for talented female cyclists for 500m event -    females 18-26 -    non-cyclists -    explosive leg power -    competition history -    recruitment via the media -    initial screening n=247 applicants -    peak power, 30 sec av power, vertical jump test -    selected 26 girls -    age 16-29 (played various sports: bball, rock climbing, athletics, rowing, netball) -    lab performance: peak power: (1300w, av power: 700w; 10+yrs),  these athletes peak power: 1134W, av power: 625W – after 6weeks (gardner et al, 2002) -    performance in less than two years, 5 athletes when on to win national comps

Paradigm shifts -    simple – complex models -    from physical to physiological -    focused cohort of 32 selected, based on: o    water ‘feel’ o    school grades o    parental background (molecular biological approach will be critical in advancements)

paradigm shift -    centralised – decentralised -    generalist – specialist

Regional postgrads -    offer maters by research (cycling) – fee-free position plus stipend, to assist talent search coordinators and also develops local support

Summary Consider maximising talent harvest by supplementing traditional TID approaches

KIM SCHIMMEL Deep Play – political hierarchies  in  new Olympics

Reconstitution of Olympic space -    nato resources -    70000 troops -    greek forces -    us coast guard -    us special forces

private security entitites and gov alliances

eyes and ears of the games

cancellation insurance -    first time in Olympic history -    $170m coverage/$6.8m premium  usd -    terrorism, earthquake, landslides (not construction delay)

Olympic Spirit -    if terrorism threat to Olympics real, then why stage it in  modern world (july 26, 2004, b KI Angelopoulous)

www.anti2004.net

current cost of Athens 2004  6billion euros, 1% of Greece gross product

Beijing 2008

Kristine Toohey -    (Sporting) Legacy of Sydney (Cashman) -    economic (direct and indirect) -    vbuilt environment (nonsport) -    info and education -    public life, politics and culture -    sport o    elite, mass (FOCUS ON MASS SPORT IN THIS PRESENTATION), financial, built infrastructure -    symbols memory history

Mass particpation as Olympic legacy (grassroots sport) – theory/intent -    de Coubertin -    Olympic Charter -    IOC invlve with sport for all, since 1983 (samaracnch) -    IOC Sport for aLL commission -    IOC WHO 5th World SFA congress 1994 -    SFA congress declarations sponsored by IOC, Seoul, 1996, bcn 1998, quebec 2000 -    IOC Legacy symposium 2002 (Hein Vergruggen) – to remain educational -    55 papers: mass participation addressed in 3 (2 winter sports)

Ressearch Q -    given intent, does hosting OG boost mass sport particpation in host communities?

Past Olympics -    international conf held in late 1980s in seoul, korea -    reps from 5 previous Olympics -    agreed that mass participation most imp -    but little evidence that actually happens -    2 exceptions o    LA 1984: AAFLA – runs number of programmes o    BCN (Truno, 1995) o    Sport paritipation in BCN •    1+ per week •    1983 36%

Sydney 2000 -    in aus $60m dollars per gold medal

Houlihan from ASC

Centre for East African Running (2004, Glasgow)

Glasgow University Symposium Possible Causes of Success of East African Distance Runners March 8, 2004.

Keith Johnson – genetics dept

‘Off the track, in the field’ Yannis Pitsiladis

Dr. Bezabeh Wolde, Sec Gen Ethiopian Olympic Committee

Sampled entire Olympic team Team trains together

Kotebe College of Teacher Education, Addis Most of athletes from Shewa and Arsi (central part of Ethiopia) -    altitude 3000m (Addis Ababa is 2400m) Bekohi, Aris Province -    deratu tulu -    kenenisa bekele children’s journeies to school by foot/running/cycling World Champs Paris, 10000m -    gold, silver, bronze all Ethiopian

Kenyan First Olympic Gold – Neftali Temu, Mexico Olymmpics Mike Boit, bronze medal 800m 1972 Munich, Olympics Commonwealth Gold, Edmonton, 1978 Nambi? Nandi? province Rift Valley St. Patrick’s High school – boys school -    many Olympians from here tea break – important? Itigo Girls High School Pupils running to school Morning, for lunch, and afternoon (parents must find food for them) Kaptagat Training Camp – Patrick Sang -    Global sport sponsorship -    Joseph Chelimo, Head Coach -    Eliud Kipchoge – gold 5000m World Champs, Paris 2003 -    Richard Limo – Gold 5000m, Edmonton 2001 -    Camp has no electricity -    Cooking fone in pots

IOC Consensus Statement on Sport Nutrition 2003 All cooking done on fires, very precisely

Daily diet -    average carbo 606g -    body weight on average 58.6 -    near perfect ratio

Fluid intake

Eliha Lagat (boston marathon)

IOC Camp – Kipchoge Keino (most well known of Kenyan athletes)

Chirchir training camp -    sampled athletes -    tea important again -    ran in morning without breakfast, and return to have tea with 3 slices of bread

Chepkoilel Stadium Kaptagat Camp (FILA) -    moses tanui -    unpasteurised milk for tea

Amos Biwott (3000m gld, Mexico 1968)

Fatwell Kimaiyo Gold 110m 1976, hurdles

Commonwealth games perth 1962, seraphina antao, gold

“whether there is money in it or not, running is in the children’s blood” school teacher

Acknowls John robertson bequest, uni of glasgow EOC, EAF, Wellcome Royal Soc Carnegie Scotland Event sponsored by Glasgow City Council, Abgene, WWR International, Cranlea

Used Bleep test – had not heard of this test before. -    results under analysis -    1000 kids tested in Nairobi

no obese kids in nandi, but plenty in nairobi

agali (staple part of diet) -    similar structure to rice

John Bale

Pre-colonial period Cultures of running Myth of natural athlete

FAM Webster arranged comp between spear throwing and javelin

Modern period When running became racing Refute idea that these Kenyans emerged in 1972 from nowhere those performances had roots in 1900s earliest recording sportised event was in 1902 one of first timed events – modern notin of recording

influence from Muscular Christianity through missionaries 1924 bureaucratisation of Kenyan running organised African Olympics records from the 1930s best performance for mile measured to second 1951 formation of African Amateur athletic federation

joy adamson – anthropoligist, research on athletic body, Masai

1954 kenyan began to engage with international comp, NOT 1968 Mexico Olympics

Kenyan Olympics, won medals in high jump, javelin, and sprinting Diversification of athletic production imp At Vancouver Empire Games, team was 2 runners in 440m, 1 in 880m, 1 in 3, 6 miles, … -    no suggestion that this was a running team at all went on into 1960s

present time… -    how does this history help explain Kenyan running? -    Need to take a global perspective -    Can Kenyan running be partly explained by the absence of success in the West -    As West declines in interest in this kind of activity, for various reasons – range of alternative activities, which has led to diminution of people taking part in long distance events. In part, this explains the success of Kenyans. -    There are poor results in these events in the west Has slope in improvement of these records declined? Things are slowing down in those events in the west

Interesting to examine how Kenyans react to this running phenomenon and how Kenyans view the western view of this -    neo-colonialism -    need a Kenyan voice

mtDNA Haplotypes and Demographics f Elite Ethiopian Athletes Robert Scott

Why do some people perform better than others?

Proposed explanations for greater success -    favourable physiology -    altitude adaptation -    running long distances to school -    psychl advantage (and cultural = ME: but actually doesn’t mean this) -    favourable genetic endowment

believes tha genetics is important, but not in way that people have considered

Majority of human genetic diversity is within populations rather than between -    more within East Africa than in Europe

more than skin colour needs to be considered -    ok, so what then?

Ethiopia

Methodology

Enviro analysis -    place of birth -    language -    distance and method of travel to school

genetic analysis: mtDNA -    mitco are major energey producers -    mito function imp in ex

mtDNA useful in population genetics -    maternal inheritance: no recombination -    fast mutation rate (D-loop) -    Maternal ancestry can be traced through branches of tree

MtDNA genome separate from

Buccal swabs from 109 control and 114 elite athletes MtDNA extracted and classifieid -    HVS-1 polymorphism -    Coding region polymorphism

Compare distrib of mtDNA types amongst athletes and controls

Ethiopian Regions -    arsi is over-represented in succeses

Place of birth results

Slightly more from Assis Ababa for elite athletes Large increasee for 18%

Might show that athletics is more prevalent in Arsi

Language Results

Possible that different ethinic goups have different frequencies of gene variant

Might be to do with popularions

Distance travelled to school results

Evidence that this might be influential

Students running some 5-10km to school, and even some running marathon distances.

MtDNA questions -    if mtDNa polymorphisms are imp in endurance performance, will t linage on whch they occur be more common amongst t athletes? -    Might this explain t dominance of East African athletes in distance running?

Contrls’ mtDNA tree -    Mitochondrial Eve

Athletes’ mtDNA tree -    relatively similar distribution -    not significantly different

Conclusions -    Ethiopians are of a distinct enviro background relative to Ethiopian popn -    Athletes have a very deep common maternal ancestry -    Athletes are not a genetically distinct population as defined by mtDNA

How does the ACE I/D polymorphism affect athletic performance, especially in East African athletes? Richard Wilson, Molecular Genetics, IBLS, Glasgow University of Paisley

Why t ACE gene? -    is a major target for blood pressure controlling therapies, and has other less well-understood activities

Why geontype athletes? -    athletes with extremes of physiological performance may help elucidate t physiological variation of normality

why genotype Africans? -    African populations contain more genetic variation than European-derived populations

What does ACE I/D do?

Lots apparaetly -    publications showing effects ranging through, o    – muscle performance in response to training skeletal muscle fibre type (in young Japanese), endurance performance (UK Olympians), high altitude adaptation, survival to 100yrs old (in France); kidney responses, insulin sensitivity, etc

How does ACE (I/D) do all this?

ACE -    activates Angiotensinl to AngiotensinII (which raises blood pressure) -    inactivates Bradykinin (removing a factor which lowers blood pressure) -    Two ACE activities so far, is it all this simple?

ACE is DCP1

ACE is a dipeptidase, cutting two amino acids off peptide hormones -    angiotensiI DRVYIHPF HL -    Bradykinin RPPGFSP – FR -    Haemoregulatory peptide AcSD – KP

Ace is an enxzyme that clips other peptide hormones

High affinity for hameo

Ace is found attached to endothelial cells and soluble in blood plasma Form of ACE is found in sperm -    In mice, where have engineered out sperm type, but not other, sperm no longer functions properly, no longer capable of fertility -    Link to cleaning vaginal secretions, which kill sperm (possible fertility link)

Functional genomics of the human ACE / DCP1 gene -    t full ACE protein has two active sites -    33 ACE isoforms o    som – DCPi – link – DCPi – anchor o    som – DCPi – link I DCPii o    tes – DCPii – anchor (male form)

ACE can do a range of things and is collecticated

Variations in the Human ACE gene -    over 70 common variants (SNPs) in 30000 DNA bases of human ACE Gene -    less than 10 of these ACE SNPs chang t functioning of the ACE gene -    human ACE gene shows t signature of recent natural selection (haplotypes / linkage disequilibrium) -    The famous ACE I/D polymorphism is almost certainly non-functional o    Is in region of gene that is removed

The ACE I/D polymorphism -    is easy to test for -    in Caucasians, ACE I/D is associated with 40% of opulation variation in circulating ACE levels (I low, D high) -    Is ace I/D hitch-hiking with t real functional change? (haplotypes) -    if look for other markers on ACE gene, knowing that how different versions have been shuffled around 22982AG is t best functional candidate, I is always found with 22982A in Caucasians, D with 22982G

DNA sampling at Kaptagat Training camp -    sample using swabs -    can diagnose people’s genotype, to carry out genotyping

An ACE blood sampler -    removed from Kenyan population, -    Kenyan, no longer regulated in same way that they are in Caucasians

ACE I/D PCR -    Extract DNA, and amplify small pieces of it

Can genotype for most markers in the ACE gene -    Roberts and others have set-up assays

ACE activity and I/D -    ethio: 40% variation -    Kenyan: 7%

ACE activity and 22982AG -    real causative agent for circulating ACE levels

Conclusions -    22982AG (not I/D) is t functional polymorphism regulating circulating ACE levels -    Kenyan / African population genetics have modified t assoc between ACE i/D and 22982AG

Few people who came out of africa historically, cold not carry the level of variation that existed in Africa -    expains why we do not see this variance in other locatioes

Is ACE I/D asoc with excelenct in Ethopian -    genotyped 114 (… -    no strong assoc with ACE I/D or 22982AG

Ethiopian ACE/ID data -    not clear that ID is solution for talent searching.

ACE I/D might work differently in males and females

Little effect of ACE ID and other polymorphisms on elite endurance Cannot use it as predictive test, May subtly affect training response Tell everyone they’ve got the ACE gene (placebo effect)!

Any evidence that ACE gene involve with other aspect of performance

Best studies are small groups of people, where have looked at small aspects of physiology , rather than assoc with large athlete cohorts.

Y Chromosome haplotypes and the African endurance Athlete Colin Moran

Overview Existing theories (including genetics) Why Y? -    what is t Y chromosome? -    Y chromosome consortium YCC) tree -    Global distrib

Techniques and subject groups Analysis -    by major clades -    by haplotypes

In the beginning -    Rome Olympics, 1960s -    Atlanta Olympics 1996 -    Sydney Olympics 2000 -    37 of top 40, 10k times

Explanations for Success -    diet -    culture -    genetics o    mtDNA o    ACE o    Alpha-actinin 3 (ACTN3) o    Y chromosome

Now around 100 genes associated with human performance

Human Karyotype -    picture of chromosomes -    23rd ppair of chromosomes are sex chromosomes (smallest) why Y? -    patrilineal inheritance -    never 2 y’s in 1 cell o    functional changes immediately subject to selection o    no recombination

haploid (because only one copy of it)

different types of y chromosome in different proportions around the world, because it is a dynamic chromosome

Summary -    Group analysis: o    Control groups not different o    Some difcs between athlete groups and control groups

-    indiv haplotype anaylsis o    4 haplotypes showed as o    sev haplotypes that we may have expected to showed no assoc •    African specific clades, A and B •    E3b*/E3b4 similar to E3b1 •    J(xJ2) which had apparent

Conclusions -    some Ethiopian Y haplotypes show assoc with elite athletes status, though not really a predictor -    Athletes are more distinct from the Arsi control population than the Addis control o    Arsi control truly representative? •    Town v country?

-    how can t y be having such an effect? o    Direct effect of a gene on the Y chromosome o    Unknown subgroup of the population?

Thanks LeicesterUniversity of Paisley    - mark jobling

Demographic characs of elite Kenyan endurance runners Vincent Ochieng Onywera

The Kenyan Runners: In search of Olympic Glory Mike Boit, Kenyatta University

Olympic boycotts and lack of exposure, performance in Kenya declined significantly

Top runners left or stopped

Kenyan Athletes in top ten of world 1968-72: 1 73-76: 4 77-80: 3 81-84: 1 85-88: 4 89-92: 9 93-96: 6

we are still not at human potential in sport – still not training enough

set backs -    inadequate facilities -    less than minimum sports funding -    lack of sophistication in coaching -    lack of expertise in nutrition -    lack of institutional training -    lack of systematic talent identification plans and implementation programme

CULTURAL traditions -    cattle radigin expedition practices (hugh demand for endurance), suallly taken as sports for the young warriers -    male circumsision (process of instilling high discipline, agresiveness, etc; ability to withstand pain)

would be prudent to assist athletes in providing alternative to taking drugs that could enhance their performance