Olympic Legacies (2008, March, Oxford university)


Olympic LegaciesOxford, March 29, 2008.

Olympic Legacies    1 Oxford, March 29, 2008.    1 Tony Mangan    1 ‘Legacy’ and the Dilemma of the Olympic Movement    2 John MacAloon    2 Discussant    5 Brian Stoddart    5 The Ideological Legacies of the Olympics Games    6 Bruce Kidd    6 Amsterdam 1928 - Amsterdam 2028: On past and future legacies    9 Hans M. Westerbeek (La Trobe Uni)    9 Olympic Environmenal Concerns as a Legacy of the Winter Games    10 Jean-Loup Chappelet    10 Olympic Legacies: Overview    12 The Legacy of Olympic Games’ Films:  The Case of Melbourne 1956    12 John Hughson (University of Central Lancashire)    12 Branding and Consumption in the IOC’s ‘Celebrate Humanity’ Advertisements: Hidden Messages    13 Joseph Maguire (Loughborough University)    13 The Olympic Legacy of Los Angeles    16 Mark Dyreson and Matthew Llewellyn (Penn State University)    16 The legacy of the 1964 Tokyo Olympiad    18 Dolores (Lola) Martinez (School of Oriental and African Studies)    18 The Seoul Olympics:  Economic Miracle Meets the World    21 Brian Bridges (Lingnan University, Hong Kong)    21

Tony Mangan Formerly at Oxford IJHS Thanks Boria Majumdar (La Trobe University) for putting together conference Beijing forum 2006 – Peking University – legacies

Second conference is SOAS meet in September Berkeley connection – Centre for Educational Studies

Thanks David Washbrook at St Anthony’s.

The Growth of Academic Research in Sport Studies Jonathan Manley

Development of research in this area

T&F publish 70,000 peer-reviewed articles per annum, Elsevier publish 160,000

Number of scholarly sports journals has grown by 43% in the last 10 years

Source: Ulrich’s Periodicals Database

Top journals -    Journal of Sports Science -    EJSS -    Sport Biomechanics -    J of App Sport Psych

Soc Sci -    IJHS -    SES -    SiS -    ESMQ

Journal Citation Repors Science / Social Sciences Citaion Index

Growth Areas -    development and policy, -    business nd economics -    qual res -    ex and public health -    coaching and talent id -    asian sport -    women and sport -    gaming

Leisure -    torism -    leisure policy -    heritage and conservation

‘Legacy’ and the Dilemma of the Olympic Movement John MacAloon

Ask John for paper

Discourse of legacy

‘managerial magical discourse’

part of a new transformation in Olympic movement

transformed out of ‘brand’ discourse limits of brand discourse second revolution for Rogge as opposed to commercial revolution of Samaranch

legacy is language of Rogge revolution

concerned with production of managerial rationality

new technical manual of legacy is being produced by IOC that will form part of contract for host cities

Chicago 2016

I now know that there are hoards of dedicated consultants in wide variety of sport services that move from Olympics to Olympics, OCOG to OCOG, selling services.

Striking and worrisome to IOC

Legacy is their buzzword

‘Legacy Lives’ – really trade conferences for consultants

‘Legacy Management Expert’

flow of labour, beginning with Calgary and broadcasting

magical properties -    compare French and English languages -    in French – heritage more freqly used (Gilbert and Christoph Dubi), subtle difference -    a lot of consultant world is Anglophonic –

superficially terms seem similar, but are v different

in French, le leg – not used in francophone context heritage has greater semantic stress – invoking the past

Olympic – sport in service of ideological agenda

So, how does an event add to or subtract from historic and symbolic capital

Legacy – legal connotations in English – what is present going to give to the future

Why imp? – legacy discorse means of setting aside people with historical knowl of Olympic movement

Vancouver – ‘legacy now’ programme

What you get first is ‘social capital’

People who typically don’t talk to one another are.

Also more pernicious aspects

Legacy is being created now for Beijing

Geopolitical legacy is enormous

Also highly contested

Hard and soft legacy

Gendered terms

1896 Games – soft legacy stadium, hard was greek going to war

current developing sitn is without precedent

journalists talking about Tibet and Darfur protests relate to 1932 or 1936

or how compare with 1980 or 1984

east asian context – how compare with 1988

I submit that it doesn’t compare

Many issues

All Olympic Games have faced these questions

The whole point is that it requires a total mobilization that will shine a light on conflicts, which is part of what intercultural education

The Beijing Games have already started

Minor but dramatic interrption to the ceremony

ME: which ceremony? The media ceremony

IOC not keen on international torch relay

The route of the torch determined by getting the most votes – cities in China that would never get the Games, but get the flame

ME: how can we follow the torch outside of key media events?

Stakeholders gain opportunity

There will be demonstrations in many cities along the route

Combined international team of BOCOG and best practices partner has not developed in the way it should have. Not been advanced work..

San Francisco

Olympic Flame only been attacked physically once – Torino 2006 – concern about globalization, local devel projects

More light hearted attempts to put it out are common

What do we think about these circumstances?

Intercultural education as festivals of food etc, is not intercultural education

View that Chinese saved Tibet is a view that is sincerely held

For leadership of Chinese Olympic Movement, this is sincerely held

So when outsiders attest to Tibet’s plight, how can it not provoke a splitism

For persons in china who might not understand sensitivity

Legacy not just what’s left after august 25th.

Discussant Brian Stoddart

My first IOC meeting Discourse began ‘Dear Colleagues’ IOC claims more than is capable of delivering Great discourse about intercultural education, but internal evidence about IOC and how filters to NOCS and ISFs seems to be left wanting – more about intercultural dispute

Lang not only about reference

Where does IOC see itself in world global order I think it sees itself at the centre, but should be elsewhere

Culture of disbelief First, we are a peace movement – this requires scrutiny Its claim that Olympic symbols are most potent peace symbols not clear at all That it leaves more than sport also questionable Third, if movement is so intercultural, how is it that is so Eurocentric in structure?

Inherited cultural capital also contestable Created another mirage

IOC sees itself at centre rather than XX

ME: what is the route towards accessing how the IOC sees its role? It’s claimed that it is not a sport organization

Questions & Answers

John: getting back stage is the crucial thing. IOC is on a day to day contact with geopolitical organizations not clear in prior government, but today is more humble.

ME: how is relationship with UN changed or the same under Rogge? -    pulled back from too extensive -    absence of Fekrou Kidane has le to some withdrawal -    Jean Loup Chappelet : in each PR from IOC they state they are not an NGO

Joe Maguire: john, are you overstating the shift? Universals and particulars. They want both.

John: it’s an ambiguity. To point out a conflict is not necessarily a negative situation. how deal with the ambiguity for public consumption?

1984 – nearly bloodshed in Olympia – Russians vs us – President of Greece vowing to throw himself between the two if the groups charged each other

in Greece, 70% of torch bearers were sponsor selected – targeted for business purposes

this is why they want the international relay

Bruce: given vulnerability of torch until it reaches China given fact that IOC has not been in regular contact of UN cannot take adv of diplomatic XX such as Truce, and given growing nationaism within china, - hope that Dalai Lama to assist in reducing conflict – what advice to resolve this v explosive crisis. Are others making efforts to intervene? Normal diplomacy takes time and we don’t have that

John: Sarkozy. Boria – what is happening in India? V ad hoc feeling.

Boria: 18 April, gov of Delhi called meeting with IOC people . might hurt India’s bid for 2020 Games.

The Ideological Legacies of the Olympics Games Bruce Kidd

Canadian Politics of Olympic Legacy

Critical support of the Olympic movement I’ve angered enough of the Olympic people and academics to think I’ve got the balance right

In the last 40 years, overarching defn of legacy q has been city building, economic develop and material benefits

Concern is that stated aspirations of Olympicsm have been left to rhetoric and chance.

Recommend that IOC require bid cities to demonstrate active contribution to democratization of ….

Talk built around 5 games

Tokyo 1964 I was a competitor here and they changed my life Personal tour to Hiroshima where people came to be as an obvious Canadian athlete and said ‘no more hiroshima’ – Olympic movement not simply as a high performance sport event, but a project of peace

In Tibet, expectations of OM to make some contribution

Tremendous complement and foolish to disregard power of the expectation, even if not in line with Rogge reign

Expect to make a contribution to peace project

Also learned from Tokyo that a good Games much more than sport and interpersonal exchange

Ambigtious urban intevetion

Transformed world’s most popular city into modern functioning city

Tokyo was most significant investment of any Games

We received hi tech gadgets, but retruned home to unwelcome Customs as we were taking Japanese products

Olympic legacy required modification of views because of certain events

1968

large demonstration of students mowed down by Mesican army and police because of protest against over-investment in Olympics when other social inequities

from then had to take social justice issue into our social understanding

also time of social movements, civil liberties

sport and society – sport not neutral, but as socially and politically constructed

had to take responsibility for this

social justice and democratic decision making

concerns deepened as I became involved in Montreal Games taking on OCOG to do more and defending against organized left

Games developed through unilateral decisions in mayor’s office

Poverty activists, gays and lesbians

Awareness of environmental destruction

Think about idea of Olympic legacy cold be democratically and socially justly developed

That was third episode

More foreful in

1996 Toronto Bid

faced group ‘Bread not Circuses’  project

targets on housing, gender equity, etc

in 2008 anticipated same campaign by ndertaking social consultation process

made us part of Olympic bid

targets for housing, youth employment, etc

ME: are these now necessary but not sufficient commitments or neither necessary?

All based on legacy as urban enhancment

Not ‘soft legacy’ as john described

Over t 40yrs overarching definition of legacy remained democratic urban legacy All else left to chance or marginalized

In some Games became impossible to insert even a minimal soft legacy

In 2008 bid, overarching purpose was waterfront devel and technological

Few sport legacies

Soft legacies lacking

Frustrating was that IOC helped little

Nothing about sport or cultural festival

Must focus on soft legacy

ME: Can soft legacies take place in a programmed manner? Eg. Sydney 4 media centres!

UN taking seriously world crisis in physical inactivity

Can make as legacy for Olympic city to improve state school PE

Sustaining legacies from games to games and after

Linking to sport development as in London 2012 with Seb Coe’s declaration from Singapore

Trustee model

John mentioned evidence based best practice

Need to reignite efforts to embrace educational project

Do it in evidence based way

ME: how can this be done from universities?

Amsterdam 1928 - Amsterdam 2028: On past and future legacies Hans M. Westerbeek (La Trobe Uni)

Should change title to ‘city heritage towards legacy intent’

Utrecht founded some 7-800 yrs before Amsterdam

United East Indies Company -    sea port into east of Europe

Amsterdam today will never be able to position itself as euro city of threat (?)

1928 Olympic bid - industralization, identity crisis, fragmented sport participation, major stadium, means to support stadium construction

ME: I can understand why legacy is relevant to communities, but why should the international consumers care?

Only if can connected local to IOC then have an opportunity to be successful

Also must be successful if you don’t win the games

If overlook local, then diminish chance of winning

Olympic Environmenal Concerns as a Legacy of the Winter Games Jean-Loup Chappelet Swiss Grad School of Public Administration

Environmental concerns are a legacy

Date back to 1990s, worldwide support in Earth Summit in Rio 1992 IOC Centenar Congress, declared as third pillar of olympism 1999 IOC adopted Agenda 21 of Olympic Movement an started to require that Olympic Games be org with concern for enviro issues and promote sustainable

how did these concerns arise?

Not only sign of times, but also positive legacy of winter more than summer games

Concept of legacy

In 2001, IOC took word legacy and found phrase ‘A Beijing Games would lave a unique legacy to China and sport’ – before decision to award to Beijing

First 40 yrs

Chamonix 1924 St Moritz 1928 Lake Placid 1932 – first to raise enviro concerns Assoc for t Protection of the Adirondacks forced organizers to relocate t bobsleigh run Winter ames location – between resorts and cities -    Garmish 938, St Moritz 1948, Cortina 1956, Sqaw Valley 1960 -    Oslo

Grenoble 1968: failure to take enviro issues into account -    now candidate for 2018

political ecology emerges in 1960s and 1970s, critics of Olympic gigantism

Sapporo 1972 – take seriously enviro -    short distances between venues -    rlocation of ski jump -    downhill run in national park replanted after games

Denver 1976 -    forced to give bak t gams following referendums initiated by an enviro group -    Citizens for Colorado Future

Innsbruck 1976 -    reused 1964 venues -    bob and luge combined run – usually an enviro prob, since a lot of XXX to be used

1972-1988 enviro not issue for summer games

Lake placid 1980 -    FederalEnvironmental Impact Statement -    Opposition to ski jumps, downhills and ice rink -    Village too small for Winter

Sarajevo 1984 and Calgary 1988 – less remarkable from enviro perspective

1990s- changed eth

Albertville 1992 – could not continue intensive devel of Savoie region

Barnier, an OCOG co-president with Killy, set enviro goals which were diffi to meet

Lillehammer 1994 became show case of Norwegian gov enviro policy (Bruntland PM)

‘white and green games’ (Samaranch)

first OCOG enviro coordinator appointed

sustainable devel emphasised

Nagano 1998 – location and recycling aware

Jean-loup.chappelet@IDHEAP.unil.ch

Bid Cities’ view -    sion places its 2 successive bids enviro concerns in Swiss canton known for lack of concern -    Sion 2002 proposed ‘balanced games’ signed ‘nature contract’ with enviro orgs and invents ‘Green Paper’ (1994) – appendix to bid files now required by IOC -    Sion 2006 continued, ‘social contract’ with unions and ‘rainbow paper’ (1998) for sustain devel -    Salt Lake and Torino implemented these ideas

IOC’s view

1991 – Samaranch attends Davos forum with Killy 1992 – IOC rep at Earth Summit 1992 – charter amended to support enviro 1994 – sport and enviro ‘centenary congress’ 1995 – ad hoc IOC commission org of conferences with UNEP every 2 yrs 1999 – Agenda 21 of Olympic Movement overshadowed by IOC crisis and never really applied

Future of enviro legacy

SLC2002, Torino 2006 and Vancouver 2010 have continued pioneering -    Vancouver ‘Legacies Now!’ concept

Sochi 2014 -    bob/luge run and olmpic village in Polyana planned in Caucasus State Biosphere – UNESCO world heritage site -    Greenpeace Russia filed complaint with Supreme Court -    Step backward?

Conclusion

- can be seen as a ploy to provide Olympismw new theme for 21st century to supplement peaceful co-existance wich served so well devel of Olympic Movement in 20th century

LUNCH

Olympic Legacies: Overview

The Legacy of Olympic Games’ Films: The Case of Melbourne 1956 John Hughson (University of Central Lancashire)

Authenticity How consider 1956 olympic film’s legacy as item of historical  record

Ian McDonald – sports historian – sport documentaries Categorization of films into a schema

T reworked 1956 film alters documentary status in terms outlined by McDonald Observational documentary – close to reality as possible

Remade more akin to expository documentary – narrator steer audience to understand visuals in a particular way Dvd released in 2000, blends contemporary commentator with original footage There are common elements – accent of two people Can watch this and believe it is original

Also serves as promo for 2000 games

Melbourne 1956 as ‘friendly games’ Cold war rivalry Australian hosts showed how can be enjoyed with no baggage except athletic gear

Title of DVD remained ‘The Friendly Games’ Concern that the remake becomes the official record of the 1956 Games

IOC concerned about how I discuss the dvd, asked to submit a copy to the IOC prior to publication. Also been asked to be careful with terminology – eg. ‘restored film’ – ‘I trust you are aware that the DVD … shot by ….2000 version not restored version, but a documentary compiled by’ -    this suggests that they are 2 items

I believe they are distinct

But concerned that the remake is a slight of hand, rides of back  of Whitchurch original

original 800 journalists

Branding and Consumption in the IOC’s ‘Celebrate Humanity’ Advertisements: Hidden Messages Joseph Maguire (Loughborough University)

Peter golding, sarah barnard, jenny butler

Critical realist

Myths of celebrate humanity beguiling, but realities compelling

Hidden messages

‘celebrate humanity or consumers?’

context media-sport nexus

circuits of promotion reshaping global sport repositioning of global sports industraila complex

Rogge emphasizes role of sponsors -    ‘print campaign’

ME: what was the target audience of this print campaign?

Celebrate humanity:

Sympathetic view: designed to promote Olympic values while adding to brand

Realist: necesar part o strategy to deflect criticism of Olympic Movement in 1990s

Critical: develop olympism as an international brand to be sold to corporate sponsors, t political and economic elite and wider consuming public

ME: from what theory of advertising does this critique emanate?

ME: I need more knowledge of what materials were developed for this campaign?

Realist/Critical perspective -    CH ex in brand equity enhancement

But critique is not of need to market

UN wih sport also does this

Not all doom and gloom

Potentiality of serving humanitarian purposes

But market research by IOC aim to work out how can compete and not promote humanitarian values necessarily

Methods -    documents, interviews, content analysis

findings from interrogation of surveys and market research -    Duped -    Faustian bargain -    Conspiracy -    Contested within IOC

Some find it distasteful

Glocalized brand strategy

IOC as a TNC

TNCs sort to grow by selling standard product across globe

Olympics as a globalizing arena

Universal message local appeal

Eg. celebrate humanity -    for 2004 campaign – ‘olympics experience touches all people and that Olympic ideals are universal…relects a universal truth about the Olympic spirit’ -    contains section on how to customize campaign. Replace global celebrity with local.

Melinda Mey – IOC marketing, formerly Coca Cola

Within campaign, key elements that need consideration

TNCs show that….global cultural ideals – give sense of beloning, unite people across world

Global myth evident in ‘hope’ ‘dreams’ inspiration

Olympic Games has capacity to inspire

Key proposition echo global myth dimension of global brand marketing

Second is ‘social responsibility’ that TNCs cultivate. Also visible in celebrate humanity – ‘fair play’

‘joy in effort’ – position to celebrate honour and human dignity – moral lessons for humanity

dark capital is side-stepped

conclusion

‘the best of us’ – campaign from ad agency changed from Saatchi and Saatchi, now focused on young audience along with Youth Games – decline of young audience

aim to create an audience profile.

The ‘youth focus’ and ‘celebrate humanity’ charcateriedby contribution between ideals of olympism and modern instantiation of commerce

The Olympic Legacy of Los Angeles Mark Dyreson and Matthew Llewellyn (Penn State University)

2 related propositions

no other Olympic city has made Olympics so central to identiy as LA

began bidding in 1915

never ending stream of bids

permanent org ‘Southern Californian Olympic Organization’ (SCOOG)

LA failed to keep a pro football team in the city

Legacy of stadium and collosseum

Olympics given LA its central landmarks

Few others rely on Olympic assets as iconic sites

LA 1932 set template for Berlin 1936 -    showcase of host

illustrated commercial viability of Olympics

but no Olympics would make it into the black until LA 1984

windsurfing at LA represented surge of extreme sports

since then, been added

snowboarding, short track, triathlon, beach volleyball – many rose in California

bmx in 2008

Disneyfication of globe

LA married Games to modern entertainment industry

Discussant:  Bruce Kidd (University of Toronto)

We are approaching a taxonomy of different legacies Also contribution to agenda for subsequent research Given IOC’s fascination for legacy and its reluctance to commit to soft legacies, we need a research agenda into various forms of legacy

Questions & Answers

ME: any audience research on celeb humanity campaign?

Joe: not really, but campaign did change throughout years and context relevant

Jim: any bigger legacy than AAFLA’s library?

Not really.

Tony: but Beijing has enormous effort.

Hans:

Joe: in commercializing

Far Eastern Olympic Issues Beijing Olympics Legacies:  Certain Intentions and Certain and Uncertain Outcomes Dong Jinxia (Peking University) J.A. Mangan (Founding and Executive Academic Editor, ‘International Journal of the History of Sport’)

Intended and unintended More than 290 billian yuan $US40b

Traffic -    90b yuan US$1.7b -    birds nest 3.5b yuan

accelerated growth

‘Plan to win Glory in the 2008 Olympics’ (2002) -    550 athetes in all 28 sports and will take more medals than before, aim to be in top 3

more than 50b yuan (US$7b) -    training -    treatment and prevention of injuries

2 potential legacies - elevated personal and national self-regard and pride if successful - lowered self-esteem and humiliation

national fitness programme ‘National Fitnes and Moe with the Olympics’

intangible legacies -    consolidation of confident Chinese national identity (98.7% of Beijing welcomes games) -    100,000 volunter spaces, more than 1m people applied

Global integration -    ‘one world one dream’ -    foreign experts employed

Will Hutton Susan L Smith

First time letters from IOC President delivered by host city rather than from Lausanne

Olympic Education Project -    400 million students from 500,000 scholars throughout t nation

CCTV introduced ‘beijing 2008’ on sports channel in 2005 and ‘My 2008’

Beijing Evening Daily

Zhang Yimou promo video

21,600 accredited and 30,000 non-accredited journalists greater media freedom

green Olympics

increased budget for enviro budgets form 45b rmb to 57b rmb

The legacy of the 1964 Tokyo Olympiad Dolores (Lola) Martinez (School of Oriental and African Studies)

Film from olympics that haunt us

Olympia film

LA 1932 did not use Hollywood to make a film

Leni Reifenstahl -    she didn’t like the ceremonies so re-did them -    highly constructed film

first Olympic film

Tokyo 1964 film – Ichikawa

What happens to the politics in these 2 films?

Local directors asked to make t film

They were meshed in state system for 1936 film

Representation at 2 levels Staged by nation state to represent something about itself

Generally its wealth, modernity

Only one possible version of reality

First sports film to be raised beyond mundane

Labelled as great work of art

4 main camera men and around 120 technicians

documentary film makers torn about the film

amazed by achievements and vision, new editing techniques, but never comfortably separate from Nazi Games and politics of its production

most people only ever watch first chapter

visual techniques – interested in representing where win uncertain

Japanese/Korean runner unexpected winner

1964 film

Ichikawa

Not too well known outside of japan, though his films are often shown in film festivals More seen as Hollywood hack that could do anything

Like kurosawa, humanist intentions

He was second choice to kurosawa

Local Olympic committee made him edit 3 times

Most profitable film in 1965

What was happening there? Why didn’t they like the film? Why did foreigners like it?

How judge legacies in future not something we have control over

JOC didn’t like since not about japan

Discussion over whether Americans looked scary and Russians not

Critics prais film for humanism

also unsettling film

prof of lit in japan eric katzin – attempt to represent t unrepresentable: social political problem of modernity

begins with blinding film

flies over Hiroshima – you see the atomic bomb

shown where Tokyo destroyed

v violent film

igareshi (historian) Olympics took place against North America critics

many said this film is about the war

refers a lot to leni’s film

both are evasive myths

resurgence of body politics in both. Both myth of restored poitical entitity both ignore political

legacies judged in future

a film so praised in 30s, which still astonishes documentary film makers, still seen as problematic

ichikawa’s film equally suspect

ME: why did kurosawa not accept?

The Seoul Olympics: Economic Miracle Meets the World Brian Bridges (Lingnan University, Hong Kong)

Sport in south korea after 1945 close to political priorities 1960s and 70s Park Chung-hee used sports promo as one way to create national ‘revival comp between two Koreas – political, military, economic, and sporting

Road to Seoul -    1981 ioc decision beat Nagoya easily -    ioc wanted boycott-free games -    2 big issues a) domestic political stability given military coup in 1980, b) tense relationship with north korea

last Olympics of cold war era

became tied up in that

a coming out party for Koreans

impact and legacies

economic, socio-cult, political-diplomatic

short and longer term

economic -    new sport facilities -    new infrastructure, han river cleaned, kimpo airport expanded, roadsides beautified

short term -    revenue sources: tv rights (but lower than expected), corporate sponsor TOP first employed, tourism -    strong economic growth in years prior, but slow in 1989, still 6% which was enviable

longer impacts -    direct: telecomm – electronics replacing textiles as lead export sector -    indirect: open up economy, distortion of economic priorties

ME: how did Korea react to the Ben Johnson scandal? Is there a legacy of remembering?

Socio-cultural legacies -    for Korean gov 2 key aspects: o    1. Promo of national sporting culure (Ministry of sport created, fnding athletes, pro baseball league – first pro league of any sport; tv coverage increase

limitations? -    lack of spectators at certain Olympic events -    boxing match behaviour – Korean boxer protestor sit down o    bad for Korea, but became worse as NBC playedback continuously which added -    atmosphere on streets

not atmosphere of world cup of 2002

society of 1980s where gov suppressed street demonstrations so v diffi to expect people to feel relaxed

2. Promo of traditional culture - Korean and cosmopolitan - ‘hand in hand’ theme song worldwide hit ‘breaking down the wall’ lyric, used in 1989 tiananamen sq

positive impression

political-diplomatic breakthroughs -    in 1981, 37 counries did not have diplomatc rels with S Korea, in the end only 2 did not attend -    north korea tried to co-host, but excluded itself in the end. Cuba joined in boycott

springboard to recogniion -    cultural plitics approach to socialist states -    hungary’s decision on eve of games to set up permanent mission

sculpture by Romanian sculptor (no diplomatic rels at this time)

sculpture park

many from east European countries

gymnastics display board was Hungarian technology

changing perceptions

fruits of ‘northern diplomacy’ (july 1988) South korea helped by changes in eas Europe Olympics changed Korean elite and public perceptions of socialist states but not relationship with N Korea

Democratization -    in early 1987 massive demonstrations against Chun gov threatened Olympics. Roh Tae Woo issued Democratization Declaration June 1987.

South Korean gov backed down in face of protests, as did not want to lose Olympics, so no martial law

1988 most peaceful transfer of power in its history

Olympic politican solidarity -    public opinion polls suggested that most koreasns across political spectrum -    opposition rfom those who saw it as military dictatorship’s project

enduring legacies? -    in 1980s, few knew about Korea (images of M*A*S*H and tear-gassed demos) buy by end of Olympics clearer impression -    though no doubt midleaing – reinvent for 2002 world cup

for Koreans -    move from third to first world -    seoul Olympic museum refer to foundation of advanced nation and ungraded international status -    remains source of appeal to collective memory and mobilization (eg. during asian financial crisis ten years later)

Questions & Answers

Q: a number of artists have been criticised for politics. Italian futurists. Dali. But their art can stand alone. Riefenstahl seems unfortunate. Can we view t  film in a way that allows art to stand above politics

Q: the will to power – neuremberg rallies film – represn to fascist ideology.

Bruce: are you sad that commissioning of films by great film makers? Lost contribution of singular vision of film makers

Boria: volunteer open and free?

Cynthia: people in china want opportunity to make contribution to success. When talk about forced volunteer, must understand china culture

John:: in what capacity one volunteers is culturally complex

Joe: former phd student looked at Korean games, finding of ceremonies show how local and global collide. But though teams separate, way that south Korean media portrayed them was quite subtle cultural interconnections – when met in a Korean restaurant in Athens – use of photographs conjoined to create notion of unity

Brian: between Sydney and Athens, Korean crisis

Gavin: egs of cities – LA model for 20th c, bejing model for 21st? tongue in cheek, but west to east – LA captures this. Beijing calls to rethink heritage or legacy – consultant migration doesn’t fit reqs of 21st c from humanitarian perspective. Are we trapped in 20th c legacy.

John: we had no problem defeating LA, since no sport infrastructure.

Tony: Korean team played in north east of England – at odds with southerns and bottom-pinching Italians. Ken Dodd – diddy men – north easterns took Koreans to hearts and genuinely loved and cheered for them. One of great moments of world cup for north Englanders. We are v conscious of the uncertainty of legacies. Uncertainty of legacies for Beijing are most interesting. Fascinating.

Discussant:  John MacAloon (University of Chicago)