Agricola, Esther - KEI Rotterdam Urban renewal in the Netherlands
kei workng since 2000
Cities experience - urban renewal policies - dutch pragmatis 1985-2005 - policy in postwar-neighbourhoods 2000-
Very small cities in the Netherlands
Emphasis on new neigh
Dutch pragmatism - compact city policy (1985-2005) - revitalising inner cities - go to Barcelna for inspiration Two instruments for it 1- VINEX (title of policy doc) instead of New towns : densifying space 2- key projects in special iner city locatiions: waterfronts, station areas, brownfields Dfference ViNEX n key rojects - 1 crossed many areas - very difficult ; 2 - a success, much easier to develop, less need to negotiate with diff groups
1994 - OSB - regeneration process, now with support for owners n renters
Meanwhile - ambitious architecture policy 1990s many policy docs produced 'space n architecture', ' architecture of space', shaping the Netherlands, etc... 1 about conscious raising, 2 upscale policy making - ref to market forces, 3 focus on enlisting major projects - motorways aesthetic, uses of public spaces, national museum chief government architect - responsible for grand projects, agenda setting, national funds, quite geneous 15 mill euro for specific architecture policy, also local patronage netherlands architecture institute
These architectural policies in 1990s in a time of recession - a time for reflection
Urban renewal for 2000
Focus on post-war neighbourhoods - modernistic, top down, severe separation of functions - industrial mass produced article - Policy - integrate social, physical n economic aims - immigrants, poverty, a challenge - change bad image - urbanism has a very bad image in the city neighbourhoods, different from coast lines, harbours that brings opps for fantasy, be creative - break through monofunctionalism - everybody likes mixture of fuctions - but how to do it in post-war areas? ie. Old neighborhoods full of innmigrants from Suriname in bad quality areas - only housing, no shops etc - restructuring housing supply - not only basic but also high income, big houses - to do the above, more power for the cities - public - partners partnerships, multiplier - new bottom-up policy - more negotiation, open for suggestions
Searching for new strategies (2000-20150 - urban renewal as a cultural task evolve from housing project to wider aspects - history, identity, people, progress - have a clear vision on the kind of city you want to accomplish - new planning instruments and design methods for post-war neighbourhoods need new approaches, not top down - discuss the meanng of strategies - avoid urban renwal being addition of ideas that are not sustainable; urban renewal works with a livng organism not tabula rasa - from neighbourhood to region development ges beyond the city - cultural planning - new relations btween city n country do not focus only on it
Important flexibility - how to balance use of buildings that ca last 50/100 yars n a society that is changing constantly
The european city of clture title was 'invisible'- very much focused on dscussing with comunities - social aspects at the core, but not sufficiently seen n appreciated by the general public- CHECK MORE
Worpole contribution - notio of INVISIbILITY - ie. Parks, invisible for policy makers - you cannot count visitors etc. The outdoors spaces are almost invisible there
Cottam, hilary 'The do Tank: From talking to doing - living and creating cities'
- looking at cities in a different way - how thinking this way can help to make changes - case study
Ares to debate - social exclusion,...
Constantly reinventing a language for matters that are always reappearing, always the same
Issues 1- the build space 2- merging of the senses, creativity
1) Thinking of cities
- lack of creative approaches - ie. Manuel Castells - cities seen as 'framework for action', not sth interactive, - cities n buildings are more than contents - they influence our aspirations - using ideas by henry Lefevbre - used by architecture theorists - problems - idea of 'home' reduced to the idea of 'housing' - Difficulty - coordination of ideas n aproaches - all is compartimente
Changing though about built space - realise social effeccts
Ideas about built space incorporated in literature - the awful sofa that affects hw an entire family feels - compare with feeling resulting from bad neighbourhood
2) Ask different questions
Designers Policy analysis Professional expertise Psychologists, other disciplines
Bring together professional, practical exp and theories
Break boundaries btween theory n practicy, senses and fcts
Problems of approach - both issues in top down and bottom up approach
If you are interdisciplinary al influence each other
Not only a blue print solution By focusing on real unique problem, we can focus on unique solution
UK situation - massive investment in built envirnment, greater since end WW2, but these policy issues not being considered - ie. Design of schools etc.
1999- decisin to massively invest in buildings - lots into corporate world, n housing - no renewal of schools - in low income areas, school replicates low morale of housing environment
The building you get into, the feelings around it can determine your feelings about your role in society
Discuss with students/ teachers / parents - 3 months of workshops n interaction to study what knd of building they would need
Results - new design is adapted to the needs n questions raised during consultation
Develop new approach incorporating new perspectives
Some lessons - in searching for meanings in the new city we still use lots of XIX concepts - - bringing different ways of thinking we can question some of these traditions -
Report by Org eco development - ref glasgow renaisssance - CHECHK
Changes in centre - 1974 pedestranised streets, far before many UK cties - the M8 - helped to ake pedestranisation possible - 1990, 300m ecus fr buchanan galleries - 1987 princess sq - rETAil mass - insist 2n after londn? - metro - 3r oldest in world - clyde port bld - GO SEE - 3rd busiest tourist destination in the UK? After Lndon n Edinburgh - CHECK - 1999 - Horns for the future- - 6000 design obs in city spread over 600 enterprises dif fields? - clyde waterfrnt regeneration- changre from industrial use to nexus - the armadillo / SECC - business tourism very lucrativem one of the strongest in city - glasgow green - rowing area in the clyde - emphasis on good quality architecture n design in the develooment - also ore light transport in these areas
QUESTIONS - cooperation btween cities in Scotland - Glasgow - Edinburgh issues- cooperation btween leaders of councils - but discussions behind the scenes - in any case, not as much competition in other areas -- governance issues - themes in the urban agenda of cities very similar - cities review - only a start - no ref to other arts n culture activity beynd architecture n design - CONTACT BACK
Henderson, john 'Cities Review'
Views on cities have changed - Scotland, a very urban place - pioneering in the world - 4 out of 5 scots live in cities
Diversity of Scottish cities the social and the economic - what about the cultural? - cultural activity is key to the attractiveness of cities
Design aspects (within the cultural) - how is it used for regeneration?
Team behind cities review - 6 cities n neighbouring areas - by may 2003 a vision for them over 10 years - key things in special planning, transport, education etc. - are these policies integrated? = money- less important than process -but a growth fund 19 pounds for it - stimulate activity, generate things - when cities review was published in jan 03, mixed reaction - expectation of sth more dramatic, this should not be the case - issues of report - boundaries - henderson doesnt think it should - - Cities in Glasgow - different feel - space distribution in Glasgow - US feel, more logical? - Glasgow, reinventing itself - big role in tourism within UK - this opens new opps for jobs etc- the service side - consider social justice - school situation - high secondary school basis in glasgow, innovative
Edinburgh - transport issues - direct flights development - avoid being so inward looking - Community planning framework - consider
Devolution process - enthusiasm, new confidence in Scotland? STUDY
Concepts to consider around cities - Common good fund - Good neighbour together principle -
Joiner, Rob 92003) Housing in cities
What is housing ina city? - the city is somewhere you go to, not sth you pass through - a place to meet - somewhere that has a purpose - somewhere to enjoy - for whom? assumptions - single people
- Part of the city? some developments are not addressng the city - use the river side only for houses, no meeting areas, you do not feel welcome - exemple - a school covered by houses why cannot you go to live in the city n have kids? Others do it
- poor people living in the cty centre - houses destructed n substituted by abominable hives - the issue of renting or buying - in Scotland, you feel you have to buy if you have the money -
Reconnecting people to the city - East end in glasgow - no houses to rent in Merchant city - Problem - wiping out people's past in glasgow- all landmarks, etc - barriers- from the east end to the city centre, derelict, empty, dangerous areas
Does it matte? - if you build houses in cities, they must do sth in the city - housing providing a sense of digity to those inhabiting
Aristotle -to be excellent, we need to be it every day: excellence is not an act, is a habit
MacLennan, duncan - First Ministers Review of Scottish Cities
Outline - new perceptions, challenges Rogers taskforce, social inclusion cities review, interest in contrasting another report UK wide - what does success mean? - what we need to do - conclusions
Perceptions of the cities review - argue about personal interests - media criticism - comparing who is giving more or less, no wider question
Reactions - get out of the obsessions with detail, the narrow focus. Look at the wider questions
1, time to move on - the process CR produces extensive review better cities - debate within SE, local authorities, wider not just finance, boundaries - challenges our evidence, how we understand the world visions, aims, delivery systems
1. Shiftng perseptions - post 1970- decline, decay, disadvantage - post 1995- new sectors, employment up - moderate EU performance, good UK - roger's like renaissance for 2 decades - high city quality, UK n EU terms - city recovery, in wider growth context RECOVERY, WITH POVERTY: TWIN TRACK?
We are not dealing with hugely disadvantage areas anymore, not majority is unemployed, not acceptable the sort of neighbourhoods available for old unemployment
Population has changed, city prices. The population is down, but full usage of city centre houses - people favoures life the cities ?? Check numbers
Opportunities are better
- beyond dismissal- decline/decay/disadvantage - relative success- complete, cohere, compact - multiple competition - tradeoffs exclusion, growth - normative/political success measures - multi-level, multi-sector complexities : so what? - indicator ambiguity, correlations - setting objectives, benchmarks, delivering
WHAT WORKS< FOR WHOM< WHERE?
II English core cities - success requires
- Transport n IT - Advanced research - high qualified labour - quality facilities - Europe quality centre - effective servces/gov - culture, sophisticated - good housing choices - environental excel - inclusive and diverse
WHAT BEHAVIOURS, CHOICES, POLICIES PRODUCE THESE QUALITY OUTCOMES
In Scotland high science concentration in terms of papers Creative, cultures
need to define what we mean - what do we want/
Ii. Key routes to success - better city thinking, coherent visions - economic challenges
Challenge 1- thinking - post 1980s- losing the place in policy - emerging synthesis- - ...
Change 2 - economic success - land, space in eco framework - enteprise strategy, space or not? - labour market - shortages - strategies - schools - benefits - retaining graduates - technology, innovation n the cities - improving space, positionng property - transport, infrastructure - new approach?
SMART, SUCCESSFUL CITIES
Not enough to concentrate in business isssues The SE, LAs, others need to improve Be clearer about the issues - land, property, infrastructure provision,
Change 3 - homes - high quality cities, improving housing - high/rising prices - priority issue - BUT- neglected older neighbourhoods - BUT - neglected council homes, tenants - capacity, mix n transfers - evolve - BUT- poor design, neglected planning - poor schools, crime fear other keys
STOP SQUEEZING COMMUNITIES SCOtLAND!
- changing things in scottish housing is too difficult - refs to bodies being too obstructive - scottish homes, regeneration group try to battle this (?/) agencies that can act - being removed - SE going the long well
Bad decision making in the process -
III Change - lively cities - centre realm - patchy fragmented - commonity planing n BIDS - retailing - NPPG8; ciy-region relations - arts n culture - sustaining performance? - NOT ENOUGH FUNDING - distributing funds, being distributive
III Sustainable cities - ppor on waste, energy loss, traffic ...
Governance - need a dialogue - no need to say citizens what to do - but discussion must start - quangos roles? - agree on measures to improve cities - negotiate openly - produce new ideas
Urban renaissance, a design solution? The renewal of interest in the public domain, Barcelona r Copenhagen? - beyond US entrepreneurialism - focus on privatisation (Thatcher influence) - connections city centre n neighbourhoods - study rels with other areas Experiments in living - encourage diversity - respond to enormous demographic changes
Towards an rban Renaissance - report written by experts - the 'design'solution only - emphasis on the buildings, not the people (london approach)
The design solution - Boyer, Christine 'The City of Collective Memory' - - Smienk, Gerrit (1995) Modern Park Design - a conference about bringing landscape, economy etc togethre - no UK representative
Grands projets in cities (the French aproach) - Barcelona- architecture fitting the culture of the city - Newcastle- giving a place an identity (angel, bridge) - Paris - les Halles ??, parks - gardens before houses - London - the millenium dome - big, grandiose projects that are not sustainble - British library at the British Museum - you go once, is wonderful but you dont return ; bridge in front Tate modern without cycling path - Greenwich - milenium village - no info about its design - Sweden new millenium village - exploring new social relations - Rotterdam - design over social relations in many areas - the benefits of lottery for new projects, hardly anything for maintenance- no garden support
If the public space is a social space, design is good, but the maintenance and use is qhat really matters
The rules of engagement - - Levett, Roger n Christie, Ian (1999) towrds the ecopolis: sustainable development n urban governance, Comedia / Demos
Institue of Public Policy Research - redesigning democracy
Urban governance in Britain - voting patterns in sub-national elections in Europe - compare with recycling schemes - Denmark 80%, Germany 72%... UK 40% Environmental agenda is embedded in civic agenda as well
The congestion charging scheme in London - it is working very well - study notion of rules and ability to bring change in public debate - changing attitudes towards public space not only through design but attitudes - more cyclists, walking - car free days - NYC - public parks - strongly policed, codes of conduct, respected
Conclusions - universalism in political n social policy is weak - universalism in environmental policy is strong - urban policies need to support 'experiments in living' - the issue of the public domain...